This article attempts to establish and examine the context of the two remaining mythological paintings in the Macellum, the central market of Pompeii. Panels of Io and Argos and of Penelope and Odysseus grace the interior walls, and while the identification of the Penelope figure has been the subject of debate, she clearly derives from Greek prototypes of Penelope, both material and theatrical. Indeed, scholars suggest that the Io panel and perhaps the Penelope painting as well are copies of Greek panel paintings created by a fourth-century B.C. artist, but it is argued here that their pairing seems to be a Roman creation and that they were part of a larger narrative program. The paintings are compositional opposites and share the narrative technique of depicting moments of quiet tension; this choice of narrative moment is one that began in the Greek world; particularly during the Hellenistic period, and was developed and enhanced by the Romans. Moreover, this interest in creating tension for the spectator, and in the relationship between viewer and image, is also demonstrated by the inclusion of a spectator figure in the Penelope painting. Although the other paintings do not survive, their subjects are known from a nineteenth-century drawing and from nineteenth-century descriptions, and these too share the same narrative technique. If the lost paintings are (also) copies of Greek originals, then the Macellum may have served as a picture gallery for Pompeii's inhabitants. A careful reading of the Macellum paintings (both extant and lost) of Greek myths, their juxtaposition and relationship to each other, and their reception in Roman literature and society reveals that the paintings were arranged as a program, a moralizing ensemble, designed to instruct the viewer on the proper behavior of Roman matrons.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
K. Schefold, Pompejanische Malerei: Sinn und Ideengeschichte (Basel, 1952).
2
M. L. Thompson, "The Monumental and Literary Evidence for Programmatic Painting in Antiquity," Marsyas 9 (1960-1961) 36-77.
3
T. Wirth, "Zum Bildprogramm in der Casa dei Vettii," RM 90 (1983) 449-55.
4
R. Brilliant, Visual Narratives: Storytelling in Etruscan and Roman Art (Ithaca and London, 1984) 65-83.
5
J. R. Clarke, The Houses of Roman Italy, 100 B.C.-A.D. 250 (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Oxford, 1991).
6
P. H. von Blanckenhagen, "Daedalus and Icarus on Pompeian Walls," RM 75 (1968) 126.
A. Wallace-Hadrill, "The Social Structure of the Roman House," PBSR 56 (1988) 43-97.
7
VI 9, 2
VI 14,42
B. Wesenberg, "Zur Io des Nikias in den pompejanischen Wandbildern," in M. Schmidt, ed., Kanon: Festschrift Ernst Berger (Basel, 1988) Abb. 1-2, Taf. 96:1.
H. Lauter-Bufe, Zur Stilgeschichte der figürlichen pompejanischen Fresken (Berlin, 1969) 4-8.
8
R. Ling, Roman Painting (Cambridge, 1991) 130
LIMC V.1 (Zurich and Munich, 1990) 668 no. 47 (illustration), s.v. Io I (N. Yalouris)
M. Robertson, A History of GreekArt (Cambridge, 1975) 438
Lauter-Bufe (supra, n. 7)
K. Schefold, Die Wände Pompejis (Berlin, 1957) 196
G. E. Rizzo, La pittura ellenistico-romana (Milan, 1929) 27.
A. Niccolini, G. Bechi, et al., Real Museo Borbonico 2 [Naples 1825] Tav. XI
E. G. Schulz, BdI 9 [1941] 124
W. Helbig, Wandgemälde der vom Vesuv verschütteten Städte Campaniens (Leipzig, 1868) 38 no. 131.
9
R. Merkelbach and M. L. West, Fragmenta Hesiodea (Oxford, 1967) frags. 124, 294
Aesch., Pr. 562-608
Supp. 291-314
Apollod. 2.1-3
Ov., Met. 1.588-750
LIMC V.1 (supra, n. 8) 661-64.
K. Dowden, Death and the Maiden (London and New York, 1989) 117-45.
10
M.-M. Mactoux, Pénélope: Légende et mythe (Paris, 1975) 146
G. Rodenwaldt, Die Komposition der pompejanischen Wandgemälde (Berlin, 1909) 145
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 294 no. 1332
G. Fiorelli, Pompeianarum Antiquitatum Historia Quam ex Cod. Mss. et a Schedis Diurnisque 2 (Naples, 1857) 219
A. Niccolini, G. Bechi, et al., Real Museo Borbonico 1 (Naples, 1824) Tav. B.
11
W. B. Stanford and J. V. Luce, The Quest for Ulysses (New York, 1974) 173 fig. 144
12
F. Brommer, Odysseus: Die Taten und Leiden des Helden in antiker Kunst und Literatur (Darmstadt, 1983) 110-11.
13
LIMC VI.1 (Zurich and Munich, 1992) 967-68, s.v. Odysseus (O. Touchefeu-Meynier).
14
infra, n. 18.
O. Touchefeu-Meynier, Thèmes Odysséens dans l'art antique (Paris, 1968) 250-51 no. 459, pl. XXXV:1.
15
Museo Civico 1831.
ARV2 1300, 2.
T. Carpenter, Art and Myth in Ancient Greece (London, 1991) fig. 347
E. Löwy, Polygnot (Vienna, 1929) 27-28, Abb. 17.
16
Touchefeu-Meynier (supra, n. 14) 98 no. 192, pl. XVIII:1.
17
A. Rumpf, Malerei undZeichnung: Handbuch der Archäologie 6:4:1 (Munich, 1953) 144-45
G. Lippold, Antike Gemäldekopien (Munich, 1951) 98-99
H. Lucas, "Die Kalypso des Nicias," ÖJh 32 (1940) 54-59
Robertson (supra, n. 8) 438.
18
Odyssey 19
Musée du Louvre C 105 (CA 860) from Melos
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 69-72
Touchefeu-Meynier (supra, n. 14) 233-35 nos. 424-29, pl. XXXIII:1
P. Jacobsthal, Die melischen Reliefs (Berlin, 1931) 67-71 nos. 87-92, pls. 48-52.
19
Supra, n. 15.
Syracuse 2408
ARV2 537, 6
W. Gauer, "Penelope, Hellas und der Perserkönig," JdI 105 (1990) 31-65
K. Stähler, "Die Freiheit in Persepolis? Zum Statuentypus der sog. Penelope," Münsterische Beiträge zur Archäologie 13 (1990) 5-12
J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: The Classical Period (London, 1985) 51
B. S. Ridgway, Roman Copies of Greek Sculpture (Ann Arbor, 1984) 8
R. Fleischer, "Ein Bildhauerauftrag unter Dareios II," AA (1983) 33-37
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 74-77
Robertson (supra, n. 8) 210
H. Hiller, "Penelope und Eurykleia? Vorbemerkungen zur Rekonstruktion einer Statuengruppe," AA (1972) 47-67
B. S. Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture (Princeton, 1970) 101-104
W. Fuchs, Die Skulptur der Griechen (Munich, 1969) 482-83
Touchefeu-Meynier (supra, n. 14) 219-20
G. Neumann, Gesten und Gebärden in der griechischen Kunst (Berlin, 1965) 134
G. Neumann, AA (1962) 852-56
E. Langlotz, "Zur Deutung der 'Penelope,"' JdI 76 (1961) 72-99
F. Eckstein, "AIΔΩΣ," JdI 74 (1959) 37-57
D. Ohly, "[Unrepresented Characters]," in E. Boehringer and W. Hoffmann, eds., Robert Boehringer: Eine Freundesgabe (Tübingen, 1957) 433-59
G. M. A. Richter, Ancient Italy (Ann Arbor, 1955) 49
E. Langlotz, "Die Larisa des Telephanes," MusHelv 8 (1951) 157-70
C. M. Olmstead, "A Greek Lady from Persepolis," AJA 54 (1950) 10-17
H. Stuart Jones, A Catalogue of the Ancient Sculptures Preserved in the Municipal Collections of Rome: The Sculptures of the Palazzo dei Conservatori (Oxford, 1926) 218.
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 77-80, 108
J. Boardman, Greek Gems and Finger Rings (London, 1970) 296, pis. 656, 664, 687
A. Furtwängler, Die antiken Gemmen 1-2 (Paris, 1900) pls. X:20, XVIII:25, IX:35, X:34, XXVII:51.
Touchefeu-Meynier (supra, n. 14) 230 no. 418, pl. XXXII:3.
Touchefeu-Meynier (supra, n. 14) 230-31 no. 419
F. Courby, Les vases grecs à reliefs (Paris 1922) 288-89, fig. 51.
20
Gauer (supra, n. 19) 34-37, 47-54
M. M. Mactoux, "La métatexte de Pénelope," Lexis 1 (1988) 5-34
K. Schefold, Die Göttersage in der klassischen und hellenistischen Kunst (Munich, 1981) 168
Taranto (8935)
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 77, 80-81
Ridgway, 1970 (supra, n. 19) 104
Touchefeu-Meynier (supra, n. 14) 222, 241
Neumann, 1962 (supra, n. 19) 853
Langlotz, 1961 (supra, n. 19) 82
Richter (supra, n. 19) 48
Langlotz, 1951 (supra, n. 19) 162-63
Löwy (supra, n. 15)
F. Müller, Die antiken Odyssee-Illustrationen in ihrer Kunsthistorischen Entwicklung (Berlin, 1913) 84.
Neumann, 1965 (supra, n. 19) 134-36
Robertson (supra, n. 8) pl. 128d
Touchefeu-Meynier (supra, n. 14) 239.
L. Ghali-Kahil, Les enlèvements et le retour d'Hélène (Paris, 1955) 59-60, pl. VIII:2-3.
21
Richter, (supra, n. 19) 48
Müller (supra, n. 20) 84.
A. Stewart, Greek Sculpture: An Exploration (New Haven, 1990) pls. 478, 517-19.
Contra: Neumann, 1965 (supra, n. 19) 136.
22
LIMC V.1 (Zurich and Munich, 1990) 946 no. 1, s.v.
23
Supra, n. 20.
24
Supra, ns. 14, 15, 18, 19.
25
Carpenter (supra, n. 15) fig. 313
K. Bulas, "La colere d'Achille," Eos 34 (1932-1933) figs. 4-5
G. Libertini, "Un vaso inedito di Gela," Anthemon: Scritti di archeologia e di antichita classiche in onore di Carlo Anti (Florence, 1955). Tav. XX:1-2, XXI:4.
26
Carpenter (supra, n. 15) fig. 304.
27
S. Radt, Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta 3 (Gottingen, 1985) 131-42, 150-54, 239, 263-72.
28
J. M. Barringer, Divine Escorts: Nereids in Archaic and Classical Greek Art (forthcoming, Ann Arbor, 1994) chap. 1.
29
C. Robert, Bild undLied (Berlin, 1881) 130
30
Barringer (supra, n. 28) chap. 1
M. Jentoft-Nilsen, in B. D. Wescoat, ed., Poets and Heroes: Scenes of the Trojan War (Atlanta, 1986) 39-43
S. G. Miller, "Eros and the Arms of Achilles," AJA 90 (1986) 162
LIMC 1.1 (Zurich and Munich, 1981) 72, s.v. Achilleus (A. Kossatz- Deissmann)
A. D. Trendall and T. B. L. Webster, Illustrations of Greek Drama (London, 1971) 54
T. B. L. Webster, Monuments Illustrating Tragedy and SatyrPlay2, BICS Supplement 20 (London, 1967) 142-43
B. Dohle, "Die 'Achilleis' des Aischylos in ihrer Auswirkung auf die attische Vasenmalerei des 5. Jahrhunderts," Klio 49 (1967) 63-149
H. Kenner, "Zur Achilleis des Aischylos," OJh 33 (1941) 1-24
Robert (supra, n. 29) 141.
31
Radt (supra, n. 27) frag. 187.
32
K. Schefold, Die Göttersage in der klassischen und hellenistischen Kunst (Munich, 1981) 168
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 49-50
33
Ling (supra, n. 8) 129
A. Maiuri, Roman Painting (Geneva, 1953) 72.
34
Rodenwaldt (supra, n. 10) 229-30.
35
Ling (supra, n. 8) 129-30
Wesenberg (supra, n. 7) 344-50
Lauter-Bufe (supra, n. 7) 8, 26
G. Becatti, Le grandi epoche dell'arte: L'etá classica (Florence, 1965) 226
Rumpf (supra, n. 17) 144
Lippold (supra, n. 17) 94
D. Levi,Antioch Mosaic Pavements 1 (Princeton and London, 1947) 151-52
Lucas (supra, n. 17) 57
B. Neutsch, Der Maler Nikias von Athen (Leipzig, 1940) 52-56
Rizzo (supra, n. 8) 27-28
Rodenwaldt (supra, n. 10) 227-32
W. Helbig, Untersuchungen über die campanische Wandmalerei (Leipzig, 1873) 140-42.
36
Ling (supra, n. 8) 130
Lucas (supra, n. 17) 56
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 253
L. Curtius, Die Wandmalerei Pompejis (Leipzig, 1929) 234
37
M. Andronikos, Vergina (Athens, 1989)
J. J. Pollitt, Art in the Hellenistic Age (Cambridge, 1986) 188-92
P. Petsas, [Unrepresented Characters] (Athens, 1966).
AR 35 (1988-1989) 75.
38
AR 35 (1988-1989)
AR 34 (1987-1988) 52
M. Andronikos, "[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters],"ArchEph 126 (1987) 362-82.
39
Lippold (supra, n. 17) 94
Lucas (supra, n. 17) 57
Neutsch (supra, n. 35) 57-58
Rodenwaldt (supra, n. 10) 231
Helbig (supra, n. 35) 140-41.
Lauter-Bufe (supra, n. 7) 25-29.
40
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 150 n. 13.
41
Supra, ns. 14, 15, 18.
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 147
43
Melian reliefs (supra, n. 18)
Chiusi skyphos (supra, n. 15)
supra, n. 19
supra, n. 19
J. J. Winkler, The Constraints of Desire (New York and London, 1990) 156
I. Jenkins, "The Ambiguity of Greek Textiles," Arethusa 18 (1985) 109-132.
N. Felson-Rubin, "Penelope's Perspective: Character from Plot," in J. M. Bremer, I. J. F. DeJong, and J. Kalff, eds., Homer: Beyond Oral Poetry (Amsterdam, 1987) 73
H. Foley, "'Reverse Similes' and Sex Roles in the Odyssey," Arethusa 11 (1978) 10
J.-M. Moret, "Circé tisseuse sur les vases du Cabirion," RA (1991) 252-54
K. Atchity and E. J. N. Barber, "Greek Princes and Aegean Princesses: the Role of Women in the Homeric Poems," in K. Atchity et al., eds., Critical Essays on Homer (Boston, 1987) 29-31
E. D'Ambra, Private Lives, Imperial Virtues: The Frieze of the Forum Transitorium in Rome (Princeton, 1993) 10-15.
44
EAA VI, 27, s.v. Penelope (E. Paribeni)
Lippold (supra, n. 17) 99
Curtius (supra, n. 36) 233
D'Ambra (supra, n. 43) 36.
Curtius (supra, n. 36) 232
45
Thompson (supra, n. 2) 40.
46
Naples (VI 10, 2)
LIMC IV.1 (Zurich and Munich, 1988) 522 no. 124-25 (illustrated in text), s.v. Helene (L. Kahil)
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 122-23
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 287 no. 1310, 319-20 no. 1391b.
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 318-19 no. 1391
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 123
E. de Langlandière, BdI (1829) 25
Fiorelli (supra, n. 10) 219-20
Verg., Aen. 3.80.
House of the Citharist (I 4, 5.25.28)
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 16
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 40 no. 137.
House of Meleager (VI 9, 2)
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 111
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 38 no. 132, 468.
House of the Dioscuri (VI 9, 6-7)
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 119
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 39 no. 133, 469.
House of the Roman Empress (VI 14, 42).
Wesenberg (supra, n. 7).
Pompeii VII 14, 5
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 204
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 39 no. 134, 478.
Pompeii IX 9, 17
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 284.
Temple of Isis (VIII 8, 28)
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 233
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 40 no. 138, 481.
47
Thompson (supra, n. 2) 58.
48
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 196-97.
49
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 321-22 no. 1394, 476.
50
Ap. Rhod. 1.256-57, 2.653-54, 1141-51, 1194-95, 3.190-91, 361, 584-88, 4.113-21
Ov., Fast. 3.853-76
Diod. Sic. 4.47
Val. Fl. 1.277-93
Philostr., Imag. 2.15.2.
51
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 291-92 no. 1322.
52
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 271 no. 1263.
Eur., Med.; Ov., Met. 7.391-97
Sen., Med.; and LIMC VI.1 (Zurich and Munich, 1992) 386-87, s.v. Medeia (M. Schmidt).
D. Mimoso-Ruiz, Médée antique et moderne: Aspects rituels et socio-politiques d'un mythe (Paris, 1982).
J.-M. Croisille, Poésie et art figuré de Néron aux Flaviens (Brussels, 1982) 41-77.
53
LIMC VI.1 (supra, n. 52) 388 nos. 8, 10
LIMC VI.2 (supra, n. 52) Medeia 8, Medeia 10.
54
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 268 no. 1257
Niccolini, Bechi, et al. (supra, n. 8) Tav. XIX.
55
Müller (supra, n. 20)
D. Michel, "Bemerkungen über Zuschauerfiguren in pompejanischen sogennanten Tafelbildern," La regione sotterrata del Vesuvio: Studi eprospettive, Atti del convegno internazionale, 11-15 novembre 1979 (Naples, 1982) 568.
56
Michel (supra, n. 55) 537-98
57
Ling (supra, n. 8) 130
Michel (supra, n. 55) 537-41
Maiuri (supra, n. 33) 72.
60
Pollitt (supra, n. 37) 4-7, 230-49.
61
Paus. 10.25.1-10.27.1, 10.28.1-10.31.1.
M. D. Stansbury-O'Donnell, "Polygnotos's Nekyia: A Reconstruction and Analysis," AJA 94 (1990) 213-35
M. D. Stansbury-O'Donnell, "Polygnotos's Iliupersis: A New Reconstruction," AJA 93 (1989) 203-15.
63
Von Blanckenhagen (supra, n. 6) 132
Von Blanckenhagen (133)
64
Pollitt (supra, n. 37) 134
Michel (supra, n. 55) 567.
65
Helbig (supra, n. 8).
66
Schefold (supra, n. 8);
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 476.
67
Leonidas inAnth.Pal. 6.289.
68
D'Ambra (supra, n. 43) 38-39.
69
Ridgway, 1970 (supra, n. 19) 104 n. 24
W. Peek, "Die Penelope der lonerinnen," AM 80 (1965) 160-69
W. Peek, Griechische Vers-Inschriften (Berlin, 1955) 177 no. 693
70
Ar., Th. 546-550
Eub. fr. 115
R. Kassel and C. Austin, eds., Poetae Comici Graeci (Berlin, 1986)
Plut., Mor. 140 F21
n. 80.
Clytemnestra and Helen in Hom., Od. 11.444-46, 23.215-24, 24.194-202.
M. A. Katz, Penelope's Renown (Princeton, 1991)
Winkler (supra, n. 43) 129-61
Mactoux (supra, n. 20) 5-34
C. G. Thomas, "Penelope's Worth: Looming Large in Early Greece," Hermes 116 (1988) 257-64
Felson- Rubin (supra, n. 43) 61-83
P. Marquardt, "Penelope [Unrepresented Characters]," AJP 106 (1985) 32-48
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 7-27.
Thomas (supra) 261
E. Cantarella, Pandoras Daughters (Baltimore, 1987) 29-30
M. Lefkowitz, Women in GreekMyth (Baltimore, 1986) 63.
71
S. Dixon, The Roman Mother (Norman, 1988) 155-59
M. J. G. Gray-Fow, "The Wicked Stepmother in Roman Literature and History: An Evaluation," Latomus 47 (1988) 741-57.
72
Thompson (supra, n. 2) 43 n. 24.
Brilliant (supra, n. 4) 69.
73
Mactoux (supra, n. 20) 21
74
Dixon (supra, n. 71) 73, 168-209.
75
S. R. Joshel, "The Body Female and the Body Politic: Livy's Lucretia and Verginia," in A. Richlin, ed., Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome (Oxford, 1992) 121.
76
Thompson (supra, n. 2) 61.
77
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 100
78
House of the Dioscuri (VI 9, 6)
House of Jason (IX 5, 18)
Brilliant (supra, n. 4) 69
Schefold (supra, n. 8) 121, 262
Helbig (supra, n. 8) 270-71 no. 1262.
79
R. G. M. Nisbet and M. Hubbard, A Commentary on Horace: Odes 1 (Oxford, 1970) 211-12
G. Williams, Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry (Oxford, 1968) 578-619.
80
Catull. 61.222-26
Prop. 3.12.37-38; 3.13.23-24
Ov.,ArsAm. 3.15-16
Tr. 1.6.2-22, 5.14.35-36.
Mactoux (supra, n. 10) 127-40, 143, 145-51, 155-74, 192
K. Sallmann, "Penelope oder die Anamorphose der Heroides Ovid," Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 30 (1982-1984) 291-302
81
D'Ambra's study (supra, n. 43)
Dixon (supra, n. 71) 71-103
P. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, trans. A. Shapiro (Ann Arbor, 1988)
D. E. E. Kleiner, "The Great Friezes of the Ara Pacis Augustae: Greek Sources, Roman Derivatives, and Augustan Social Policy," MEFRA 90 (1978) 753-85
Thompson (supra, n. 2) 66-68.
82
Zanker (supra, n. 81) 265-95, 320-23, 326-28
Brilliant (supra, n. 4) 65-83.
83
Brilliant (supra, n. 4) 69.
84
Brilliant (supra, n. 4) 69-71
Croisille (supra, n. 52) 41-59
85
Croisille (supra, n. 52).
86
Zanker (supra, n. 81) 328
87
L. Richardson, Jr., Pompeii: An Archi- tectural History (Baltimore, 1988) 201-202.
88
Croisille (supra, n. 52) 45-46
B. Neutsch, "Bildbeschreibungen des Antiphilos des Byzanz," RM 53 (1938) 175-88
Helbig (supra, n. 35) 146-47.
89
Lucas (supra, n. 17) 58.
90
A. Rouveret, Histoire et imaginaire de la peinture ancienne (Rome, 1989) 475-96
91
Rouveret (supra, n. 90) 491.
92
A. Borbein, "Die Ara Pacis Augustae," JdI 90 (1975) 252ff.
E. Courbaud, Le bas-relief romain à répresentations historiques (Paris, 1899) 84.
93
D. E. E. Kleiner, Roman Sculpture (New Haven, 1992) 92
Kleiner (supra, n. 81).
94
P. H. von Blanckenhagen, "The Odyssey Frieze," RM 70 (1963) 100-146
P. H. von Blanckenhagen, "Narration in Hellenistic and Roman Art," AJA 61 (1957) 80.
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