It is argued that there is no simple or single reason for the riots caused by pantomimes in early imperial Rome, and especially in 14 and 15 A.D. Theatrical passion has been suggested as the main cause, but other factors must be considered: the meaning of the theater as a symbol of order, the peculiar importance of the equestrian order in the architecture of the theater; the position of the main Roman theaters in their relation to the exercise grounds of the iuvenes; the complex relationships of the equestrian iuvenes with the pantomime artists. It is pointed out that it is not always easy to define a pantomime, or to know the nature of the program; but competition was certainly involved. It is argued that the policies of Tiberius toward the theater and the iuvenes were particularly productive of discontent, which led to repeated legislation to control it. The role of Drusus is probably crucial. A central role is also played by the theater claques, and the acclamations of the equestrians, the theater being their principal venue. Various connections between the equestrian iuvenes and the theater are considered. One key is the physical training of Roman youth, which had become affected by Greek concepts of gymnasium dancing, perhaps under the influence of rhetoric. This in turn made it possible for young Romans to develop quasi-pantomime skills, which they could demonstrate in their iuvenalia. Second, it is suggested that the Baths of Agrippa and their decoration can be seen as an indication of such a change in official policy, and their position next to the theaters is stressed. Third, the personal relations between pantomimes and the nobility is documented, and the importance of the private stage in Rome. Finally, the legislation of the Tabula Larinas is considered, as it affected nobles on the stage or in the arena, and other legal implications of this conflict between the senate and the youth are sketched.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Flacc. 17.
H. Bollinger, "Theatralis Licentia" (diss. Basel: Winterthur, 1969).
Marc Baer, Theatre and Disorder in Georgian London (Oxford, 1992)
2
G. Manganaro, "Pankarpeia di epigrafia latina," SicGymn 23 (1970) 77-79
Epigraphica 29 [1967/68] 94-97
3
Juv. 6.62ff.
Friedländer ad loc.
4
Leppin 6-18 and 125, and below, n. 80
5
ILS 5201
CE 411
6
Wüst, RE s.v. "Pantomimus" (1949) 845.
Juv. 6
Oxford fr. 27
J. Colin, "Juvénal, les baladins et les rétiaires," AAT 87 (1952-53) 315-85, esp. 333.
7
Plut. QC 7.8.3, 711E
8
Jer. Chron. 2.143 Sch.
Athen. 1.20d
Tac. Ann. 1.54.
E. J. Jory, "The Literary Evidence for the Beginnings of Imperial Panto- mime," BICS 28 (1981) 147-61.
9
Zos. 1.6.1
Tac. Dial. 29.4
Gudeman ad loc.
Livy 7.2.
10
M. Adele Cavallaro, Spese e spettacoli, Antiquitas, Reihe 1, Bd. 34 (Bonn, 1984) 184 n. 98
Wüst (above, n. 6) 834
L. Robert, Hermes 65 (1930) 106-22
Opera Minora Selecta 1.654ff.
11
O. Weinreich, Epigrammstudien 1, Epigramm und Pantomimus, SHAW 1940, 1.1 (Heidel- berg, 1941)
12
Wüst (above, n. 6) 844.
W. Slater, "Three Questions," Phoenix 47 (1993)
J. P. Thuillier, "Sur les origines étrusques du théâtre romain," in C. Landes, ed., Le théâtre antique et ses spectacles (Lattes, 1992) 201-8.
Livy 7.2.4
13
Varro ap. Serv. ad Verg. Georg. 5.73
14
R. Meinel, Das Odeion (Frankfurt, 1980) 366.
Leppin 151
Libanius, Pro Saltatoribus, 64.112F
15
Suet. Aug. 45.2.
R. F. Newbold, "Social Tension at Rome in the Early Years of Tiberius' Reign," Athenaeum, n.s., 52 (1974) 110-43.
16
Jory (above, n. 8) 152
"The Early Pantomime Riots," in Maistor: Classical Byzantine and Renaissance Studies for Robert Browning (Canberra, 1984) 62.
B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976) 122
Dio 57.11
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 16 n. 31
E. Tengstrom, Eranos 75 (1977) 43ff.
Suet. Aug. 45.2
Tac. Ann. 1.54.3.
17
Tib. 47.1
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 16.
18
Leppin s.v. "Actius,"
Suet. Tib. 47.
Dio 57.11.6
Dig. 7.11.3
19
Tac. Ann. 3.72
Suet. Tib. 47
C. Courtois, Le bâtiment de scéne des théâtres d'Italie et de Sicilie (Louvain-la-neuve, 1989) 211
20
Sen. Prov. 4.4
Levick (above, n. 16) 123 n. 25.
21
Dio 59.2.5.
22
W. D. Lebek, ZPE 75 (1988) 59-71
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 121ff., 251ff.
Jory, "Riots" (above, n. 16)
23
Vell. Pat. 2.126.2
24
Ann. 1.54.2.
25
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 127.
ILS 5197
Leppin 217-18
Jory, "Riots" (above, n. 16) 65.
26
Wüst (above, n. 6) 858-59
Jory, "Riots" (above, n. 16) 57-66, esp. 60-61
Leppin 174ff.
G. Wissowa, Römische Religionsgeschichte (Munich, 1912) 454 n. 3
ILS 5177, 5178
Tac. Ann. 14.21
27
Dio 56.47.2.
28
Jory, "Riots" (above, n. 16) 60 n. 16.
Dio 54.2.3
29
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 36, 128.
30
Leppin 62
Jory, "Riots" (above, n. 16) 60.
31
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 36.
32
Tac. Ann. 1.77
Dio 57.14.10
Veil. Pat. 2.126.2
Suet. Tib. 34.1
Zos. 1.6.1
Jory (above, n. 8) 152.
33
Suet. Tib. 34.
35
Dio 57.13.1, 14.10.
36
Jory, "Riots" (above, n. 16) 52
Leppin 140
Suet. Tib. 52.
37
Suet. Tib. 34.1.
38
Dio 57.14.3
Tac. Ann. 1.76.5
W. D. Lebek, "Standeswürde und Berufsverbot unter Tiberius: Das SC der Tabula Larinas," ZPE 81 (1990) 37-58
"Das SC der Tabula Larinas: Rittermusterung und andere Probleme," ZPE 85 (1991) 41-70
40
Tac. Ann. 4.14.4
Veil. Pat. 2.126.2.
41
Dio 57.21.3
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 41 n. 26.
Leppin 66 n. 29
Tac. Ann. ad loc., p. 508.
Jory, "Riots" (above, n. 16) 62 n. 32
n. 75
Paneg. 54.1
42
Fronto, On Speeches 10
Leppin 186-88
E. J. Jory, BICS Suppl. 51 (London, 1988) 79
43
Suet. Gaius 54.
44
Jory (above, n. 8) 152.
45
Tac. Ann. 4.14.3.
46
Jory, in "Riots" (above, n. 16)
"Evidence" (above, n. 8) 147ff.
BICS Suppl. 51 (London, 1988) 73ff.
M. Wistrand, Entertainment and Violence in Ancient Rome (Göteborg, 1992)
47
Leppin 149
48
Lebek, ZPE 81 (1990) 47-48.
Leppin 101-7.
49
Leppin 174
SEG 33.770.
50
nn. 25, 26.
51
Pliny, NH 29.9
Leppin 102.
Inschriften von Ephesos 1161-62
52
Roueché, Performers, and JRS 74 (1984) 184-99.
53
Elizabeth Rawson, "Theatrical Life in Republi- can Rome and Italy," PBSR 53 (1985) 97-113
"Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Iulia Theatralis," PBSR 55 (1987) 83-114.
C. Schnurr, "The Lex Julia Theatralis of Augustus," LCM 17 (1992) 147-60
Ségolène Demougin, L'ordre équestre sous les julio-claudiens, CEFR 108 (Paris, 1988) 799
Suet. Aug. 40.2 requires.
Porp. ad Hor. Epod. 4.15.
54
Demougin (above, n. 53) 802
Lebek, ZPE 85 (1991) 43 n. 6
Rawson, PBSR 55 (1987) 86.
55
T. P. Wiseman, "The Definition of Eques Romanus," Historia 19 (1970) 72.
56
Suet. Aug. 44.1.
L. Käppel's study of Epidaurus in JDAI 104 (1989) 83-106
P. Gros, "La fonction symbolique des édifices théâtraux," in L'urbs, CEFR 98 (Paris, 1987) 319-43
57
Demougin (above, n. 53) 812
PBSR 55 (1987) 105ff.
58
Tac. Ann. 2.83.5.
Demougin (above, n. 53) 808
Vitruvius 5.6.2, 5.7.2
E. Rodriguez Almeida, Forma urbis: Aggorniamento generate 1980 [Rome, 1981] XXXII
ibid. XXIII
59
Martial 5.14.1
Demougin (above, n. 53) 809.
Res Gestae 14
60
Tac. Ann. 2.83.5
Demougin (above, n. 53) 808.
61
Demougin (above, n. 53) 214ff.
62
ILS 5049
63
Demougin (above, n. 53) 801
Lebek, ZPE 85 (1991) 42 n. 3
Suet. Aug. 34.2
Phaedrus 5.7.30 and 33.
64
Sen. Ep. 47.17
Pliny, NH 7.184
Sen. QN 7.32.3
Juv. 6
Oxford fr. 19
Macer in Dig. 48.5.25(24)
Dig. 23.2.43ff. ad fin.
n. 120.
65
Suet. Div. Iul. 39
Dio 43.23.5.
66
Dio 51.22.4.
67
Tac. Ann. 14.21.
68
Dio 53.31.3.
69
Dio 54.2.5
Suet. Aug. 43.3.
70
Suet. Aug. 43.3
Nero 4
Dio 55.10.11.
71
Dio 56.25.7.
Suet. Gaius 27.3-4.
72
Lebek, ZPE 81 (1990) 47ff.
Leppin (76; cf. 142ff.)
73
Suet. Aug. 43.2
74
Sen. Ep. 99.13
Tac. Hist. 2.62.2
75
Performers 136.
SEG 27.261, 67
Livy 7.2
Lebrecht Schmidt, "Postquam ludus in artem paulatim verterat: Varro und die Friihgeschichte des romischen Theaters," in Studien zur vorliterarischen Periode im fruhen Rom, Scripta oralia 12 (Tiibingen, 1989) 77-134, esp. 93
J. P. Morel, "La iuventus romaine et les origines du théâtre romain," REL 47 (1969) 208-52
J. P. Neraudau, La jeunesse dans la litterature et les institutions de la Rome republicaine (Paris, 1979) esp. 239.
76
Jean Louis Ferrary, Philhéllenisme et impérialisme, BEFAR 271 (Paris, 1988) 511-26.
Suet. Aug. 83.1
Plut. Cato Mai. 26
Marcell. 34.5
Dio (52.26.1)
G. Ville, Gladiateurs 216ff., 267ff.
Polybius, ap. Cic. Resp. 4.3.3
H. Galsterer, Athenaeum 59 (1981) 410ff.
S. Panciera, "Tra epigrafia e topografia," ArchClass 22 (1970) esp. 151-63
n. 105.
77
Cyprian, Epist. 2.
Lebek, ZPE 81 [1990] 47
78
E. Mähl, Gymnastik und Athletik im Denken der Römer (Amsterdam, 1974) 21ff.
Slater, "Three Questions" (above, n. 12)
Plato, Leg. 814-15
Plut. Mor. 747A
Dio Prus. 32.20
Galen, De Sanit. Tuend. 6.325.1
Diod. Sic. 1.16.1
Athen. 14.629b-c
Synes. De Insomniis 20
Plut. Mor. 790F
C. Roueché, Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity (London, 1989) 43.
79
M. Kleijwegt, Ancient Youth (Amsterdam, 1991) 109
Posid. ap. Athen. 4.154a
Dio Cass. 66.15
Joh. Chrys. 49.51
Philo, De Cher. 81
Quod Det. 41
Plato, Leg. 830C
Paus. 6.10.3
80
L. Robert, "Amulettes grecques," JS, 1981, 3-44, esp. 38ff.
Opera Minora Selecta 7.465-506, esp. 500ff.
Slater, "Three Questions" (above, n. 12) esp. n. 94
M. W. Dickie, "Palaestrites."
81
W. Slater, "Orchestopala," ZPE 84 (1990) 219ff.
W. J. Raschke, "Aulos and Athlete," Arete: The Journal of Sport Literature 2 (1985) 177-200
Athen. 14.631b.
82
Plut. QR 40
83
G. Wille, Musica Romana (Amsterdam 1967).
Mähl (above, n. 78)
Vitruv. 9, praef. lff.
Maccabees 4.14
Plato, Leg. 636
84
Cic. Resp. 4.4.4.
Pliny, Ep. 4.22.7
Hor. Od. 3.24.51
Sat. 2.2.10
Tac. Ann. 14.14-15, 20-21
Pliny, NH 15.19, 29.26
Pliny, Paneg. 13.6
Mart. 7.32
Luc. 7.270
Suet. Dom. 4
Friedländer. Sittengeschichte1l 2.154ff. (cf. 4.281ff.)
B. Appel, "Das Bildungs- und Erziehungsideal Quintilians" (diss. München: Donauwörth, 1914) 88 n. 59.
85
Ep. 88.18.
86
Slater (above, n. 12).
Mähl (above, n. 78) 21
Cic. De Orat. 3.83
Dio Chrysostom 31.162
Orator 14
Orator 228
Quint. 1.11.15, 5.10.121.
Cic. Leg. 1.6
De Orat. 1.81
Orator 186
Opt. gen. or. 8
Plut. Anton. 9.4
Procop. Anecd. 9.23.
R.Förtsch, Archäologischer Kommentar zu den Villenbriefen des jüngeren Plinius (Mainz, 1993) 69ff.
Statius, Silv. 4, proem 25
Coleman ad loc.
87
Quint. 1.11.15.
J. Bulwer, Chirologia (London, 1644)
G. Austin, Chironomia: A Treatise on Rhetorical Delivery (London, 1806).
88
Ann. 14.20.
89
Ferrary (above, n. 76) 511-26
L. Robert, Noms indigènes (Paris, 1963) 490ff
Livy 29.19.11.
90
Vell. Pat. 2.83.2
91
Cato, ORF fr.114-15
Schmidt (above, n. 75) 93-94.
92
Strabo 5.3.8
Nisbet and Hubbard at Hor. Od. 1.8.4
Mähl (above, n. 78)
J. Delorme, Gymnasion (Paris, 1960)
93
T. P. Wiseman, "Strabo on the Campus Martius," LCM 4 (1979) 129-34.
94
Dio 53.1.5.
H. Langenfeld, "Die Politik des Augustus und die griechische Agonistik," in Monumentum Chiloniense: Studien ... für E. Burck zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. E. Lefèvre (Amsterdam, 1975), 228-59
W. W. Briggs, "Augustan Politics and the Games of Aeneid V," Stadion 1 (1975) 267ff.
95
Mähl (above, n. 78) 34
Suet. Aug. 44.3
96
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 30 n. 71
J. R. Patterson, JRS 82 (1992) 197-98
Inge Nielsen, Thermae et Balnea (Aarhus, 1990) 1.43-45
B. Tamm, Neros Gymnasium in Rom (Stockholm, 1970).
R. König, Plinius Naturkunde XXXVI [Darmstadt, 1992]
Pliny, NH 36.121
B. Laum, Stiftungen (Leipzig, 1914) 1.114
97
Cic. Tusc. 2.36.
n. 98, below.
98
Dio 53.27
ILS 5706
Vitruvius (5.11)
J. DeLaine, "Roman Baths and Bathing," JRA 6 (1993) 348-58, esp. 354-55.
99
E. Baltrusch, Regimen Morum (Munich, 1988) 152 n. 131.
100
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 73
Delorme (above, n. 92) 433ff.
435 n. 3
101
Polyb. 15.30.7
Philo, In Flaccum 34, 37ff.
Delorme (above, n. 92) 139
P. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (Oxford, 1972) 2.93 n. 208.
F. Burkhalter, "Le gymnase d'Alexandrie: Centre ad- ministratif de la province romaine d'flgypte," BCH 116 (1992) 345-73
n. 123 below.
C. A. Forbes, Neoi (Middletown, 1933) 48
102
Tert. Spect. 10
Gros (above, n. 56)
Athen. 602d
Plato, Leg. 636B.
103
P. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988) 139-40
Pliny, NH 34.62
n. 109
n. 101 above
104
Cavallaro (above, n. 10) 67
Leppin 169ff.
105
AE, 1989, no. 420, p. 128
E. Serrano Ramos and P. Rodriguez Oliva, Baetica 11 [1989] 237-56
Delorme (above, n. 92) 436ff.
H. S. Versnel in Lapis Satricanus, ed. C. M. Stibbe et al. (s'Gravenhage, 1980), 108-27, esp. 119
F. Jacques, "Humbles et notables," AntAfr 15 (1980) 217-30
n. 76.
106
Kleijwegt (above, n. 79) 109-10.
Varro, RR 2
107
Leppin 143
108
Kleijwegt (above, n. 79) 104
Roueché, esp. 123-24, 135-40, 152-53.
109
Tac. Ann. 1.16.
Roueché 132-33
Lib. Or. 41.6
Philo, In Flaccum 135ff.
110
J. L. Franklin, AJP 108 (1987) 95-107.
ILS 4181b
111
E. Eyben, Restless Youth (London, 1993) 57ff., esp. 60 n. 105.
Macrob. Sat. 3.14.7
Slater, "Three Questions" (above, n. 12).
Fronto, Fer. Als. 3.5
Ep. ad Marc. 3.6.1
Galen 6.406 K.
Suet. Tit. 7.3.
Suet. Dom. 8.3
112
T. A. J. McGinn, ZPE 93 (1992) 273
113
Leppin 142.
114
Lebek (above, n. 38).
115
Suet. Tib. 35
Juv. 8.185-210
Leppin 142-47.
116
R. Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984) 450.
Tac. Ann. 2.85
Dig. 48.5.11.2 (Papinian) for the law.
117
Lebek, ZPE 81 (1990) 60-63.
B. Levick, "The SC from Larinum," JRS 73 (1983) 97-115.
118
Dio 58.1a
Fidenae (Tac. Ann. 4.62, Suet. Tib. 40)
H. Galsterer, "Spiele und 'Spiele'," Athenaeum 59 (1981) 410ff., esp. 414 n. 10
119
W. Jashemski, The Gardens of Pompeii (New York, 1979) 101
Tac. Ann. 1.77
Vell. Pat. 2.126.2.
120
Lebek, ZPE 81 [1990] 48
Leppin 43
146 n. 62
Sen. Ad Helviam, Dial. 12.12.6
Suet. Nero 4
Juv. 6, Oxford fr. 19
Sen. QN 7.32.3
Dio 54.2.5, 55.10.11
Juvenal 11.165.
Lebek, ZPE 81 (1990) 47
121
Rawson, PBSR 55 (1987) 83-114 at 106 n. 131
Leppin 77 n. 33
Quint. 3.16.8.
122
Lebek, ZPE 81 (1990), esp. 49, 52.
123
Lib. Or. 64.104
C. P. Jones in "The Bacchants of Pontus" EMC 9 (1990) 53-63.
CIL 8, Supp. 4, 26606
n. 105 above
Galsterer (above, n. 118) 426
124
Dig. 3.3.41 (Ulpian)
Lebek, ZPE 81 (1990) 76.
125
TL 1.10
ILS 6635
Kleijwegt (above, n. 79) 109
126
Leppin 142 n. 37
127
Roueché 136
Philo's Alexandria (cf. n. 109 above)
129
Hor. Epist. 2.1.182
Plut. Cic. 13.
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