Earlier work has tended to view Delos as an entrepôt for the larger Hellenistic grain trade, but during the years of independence (314-167 B.C.) the island relied on the import of grain to satisfy local demand, and this was certainly the more important aspect of the trade in grain, at least from the Delians' point of view. This study explores several issues connected with the local supply of grain. From prices for grain reported in inscriptions and estimates of the local population, the aggregate annual demand for grain is estimated, and the price structure of grain derived; the ratio of wheat and barley prices on Delos is found to differ considerably from that known from Athens and Roman Egypt. The shortage of 282 B.C., assumed by earlier scholars from prices recorded for that year, is shown instead to be a period of atypically low prices. The impact of the sailing season on shipments of grain is explored, and an annual rhythm in grain prices and availability linked to the closure of the sea and the agricultural year is revealed. The Delians tried to reduce the impact of these fluctuations by the public purchase of grain on an irregular basis in the late fourth and third century, as attested through public loans; by the last quarter of the third century they had established a regular sitōnia fund to buy grain for resale at reduced prices. Comparison of funds available, grain prices, and the estimated aggregate demand suggest that the Delian sitōnia was able to cover a significant fraction of local demand; this contrasts with evidence from other cities. Some of the implications of these results for our understanding of the Hellenistic economy are briefly explored.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Garnsey 154-62.
2
L. Cayeux, EAD IV, pt. 1 (Paris, 1911) 1
Rostovtzeff 230.
Waldemar Déonna, La vie privée des Déliens, Ecole Française d'Athènes, Travaux et Mémoires 7 (Paris, 1948) 89.
3
Inscriptiones Graecae XI 2
Inscriptions de Délos, Comptes des Hiéropes (Nos. 290-371), ed. Félix Durrbach (Paris, 1926)
Inscriptions de Délos, Comptes des Hiéropes (Nos. 372-498), Lois ou règlements, contrats d'entreprises et devis (Nos. 499-509), ed. Félix Durrbach (Paris, 1929); hereafter IG XI 2 and ID
4
Philippe Bruneau, Recherches sur les cultes de Délos à l'époque hellénistique et à l'époque impérial, BEFAR 217 (Paris, 1970).
5
Christian Marek, Die Proxenie (Frankfurt, 1984) 71- 73, 332-81.
6
Heichelheim, Wirt. Schw. 48-72
Rostovtzeff 235, 221, 231-32
Shear 30- 31
Durrbach, Choix pp. 57-58
Vial 339-43.
8
Rostovtzeff 168-69.
9
Durrbach, Choix pp. 57-58
Jardé 170-73.
Shear 31
Fritz Heichelheim, RE Suppl. VI s.v. "Sitos," col. 860.
10
Migeotte 19-41
Hommage à la mémoire de Ernest Pascal, Cahiers des Études Anciennes 24 [Québec, 1990] 291-300)
Opes Atticae: Miscellanea philologica et historica Raymondo Bogaert et Hermanno Van Looy oblata, ed. M. Geerard (The Hague, 1990), 297-308.
Daniel J. Gargola, "Grain Distributions and the Revenue of the Temple of Hera on Samos," Phoenix 46 (1992) 12-28.
J. H. M. Strubbe, "The Sitonia in the Cities of Asia Minor under the Principate (II)," EA 13 (1989) 99-122.
11
Larsen 347-48
Garnsey 81
Contra, Migeotte 31.
12
H. Forbes, in Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty, ed. Paul Halstead and John O'Shea (Cambridge, 1989), 89
Oliver Rackham in The Greek City from Homer to Alexander (Oxford, 1990), ed. Oswyn Murray and Simon Price, 88-91.
Arnon, Crop Production in Dry Regions (London, 1972) 2.4, 74 (rainfall requirements).
Athens, 1968- 1984
B. J. Slot, Archipelagus Turbatus: Les Cyclades entre colonisation latine et occupation ottomane c. 1500-1718, Uitgaven van het Nederlands historisch-archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul (Istanbul, 1982) 1.302-6, 321-24
J. de Tournefort, A Voyage into the Levant (London, 1741) 1.192, 228, 266, 270, 273, 284; 2.8, 16, 32, 41.
Christopher Connell, In the Bee-Loud Glade (Nafplion, 1980) 18, 22-25
Wagstaff-Augustson, in Island Polity 110-12
Wagstaff-Augustson-Gamble, in Island Polity 177-79
Wagstaff-Gamble, in Island Polity 98, 101
Paul Halstead and Glynis Jones, "Agrarian Ecology in the Greek Islands: Time Stress, Scale and Risk," JHS 109 (1989) 41-55
Guy D. R. Sanders, "Reassessing Ancient Populations," BSA 79 (1984) 251-62
R. N. L. Barber, The Cyclades in the Bronze Age (Iowa City, 1987) 7.
IG XI 2.142.7, 11 (Delos)
IG II2 1672.297-98, 275.
13
Luigi Gallo, Alimentazione e demografia della Grecia antica (Salerno, 1984) 26-31
"Alimentazione e classi sociali: Una nota su orzo e frumento in Grecia," Opus 2 (1983) 449-72, esp. 454-59
Marie-Claire Amouretti, in L'origine des richesses dépensées dans la ville antique (Aix-en- Provence, 1985) 133-46
Peter Garnsey, in Crux: Essays in Greek History presented to G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, ed. P. A. Cartledge and F. D. Harvey (London, 1985), 66 n. 17.
Chrissoula Veligianni, "Ein hellenistisches Ehrendekret aus Gazoros (Ostmakedonien)," ZPE 51 (1983) 106 at 1. 6
Philippe Gauthier, "Nouvelles récoltes et grain nouveau: À propos d'une inscription de Gazôros," BCH 111 (1987) 413-18.
Paul Harvey, "New Harvests Reappear: The Impact of War on Agriculture," Athe- naeum 64 (1986) 209 n. 11
Rathbone 46-48.
14
Lionel Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Princeton, 1986) 270-72
Hesiod, WD 663-65
G. L. Snider, AJAH 3 (1978) 129-33.
Martin Zimmermann, "Die lykischen Häfen und die Handelswege im östlichen Mittelmeer: Bemerkungen zu PMich I 10," ZPE 92 (1992) 212-13, 216
Athens (213 n. 61).
15
Foxhall-Forbes 46.
Larsen 384-85
infra.
16
Robin Osborne, Classical Landscape with Figures (London, 1987) 14-16
Demos: The Discovery of Classical Attike (Cambridge, 1985) 105-7
Signe Isager and Jens Erik Skydsgaard, Greek Agriculture: An Introduction (London, 1992) 104.
17
Gustave Glotz, "Les prix des denrées à Délos," Journal des Savants 11 (1913) 19-20
Jardé 169-70
Heichelheim, Wirt. Schw. 51
Larsen 383-84
C. Roebuck, "A Note on Messenian Economy and Population," CP 40 (1945) 159-61
Kevin Clinton, "Inscriptions from Eleusis," ArchEph., 1971, 110-11
Foxhall-Forbes 53-55
Garnsey 25.
18
Rathbone 47
54 n. 8
Sallares 428 n. 17
Jardé 182.
19
Jardé 182
131 n. 3.
20
Garnsey 154-62.
21
Dem. 34.39
[Arist.] Oik. 2, 2.33e (1352b 19)
Garnsey 154-62.
22
Veligianni (supra, n. 13) 106 at ll. 5-6
Gauthier (supra, n. 13) 413-18.
23
Hans-Joachim Drexhage, Preise, Mieten/Pachten, Kosten und Löhne im römischen Ägypten bis zum Regierungsantritt Diokletians: Vorarbeiten zu einer Wirtschaftsgeschichte des römischen Ägypten 1 (St. Katharinen, 1991) 26.
O. Strassb. 47
P. Mich. 2.127, col. 2, 1. 1
P. Berl. Frisk 1, coll. 1,4, 24, 26, 28
P. Berl. Leihg. 2.39, recto, col. 4,1. 58
P. Cairo Goodsp. 30, col. 33,1. 21.
24
Rathbone 47
Harvey (supra, n. 13) 209 n. 11
Rathbone 46-48.
25
Foxhall-Forbes 46.
26
Garnsey 134-49
Sallares 332.
27
Larsen 347-48
Rostovtzeff 235.
28
Drexhage (supra, n. 23) 18-19.
29
Peter Garnsey, Tom Gallant, and Dominic Rathbone, "Thessaly and the Grain Supply of Rome During the Second Century B.C.," JRS 74 (1984) 42.
30
Gallant 97-98.
31
Glotz (supra, n. 17) 19-20
REG 31 (1918) 214
Jardé 169-70
Shear 31
Larsen 383-84
Heichelheim, Wirt. Schw. 51
"Sitos," RE Suppl. 6, cols. 857-58
Roebuck (supra, n. 17) 159-61
Clinton (supra, n. 17) 110-11
Foxhall- Forbes 53-55
Garnsey 25.
32
Jardé 170-73.
A. J. Sachs and D. J. Wiseman, "A Babylonian King List of the Hellenistic Period," Iraq 16 (1954) 202-14
Just. 17.2.4
Edouard Will, Histoire politique du monde hellénistique (323-30 av. J.-C.), Annales de l'Est 30, vol. 12 (Nancy, 1979) 103.
André Aymard, "Du nouveau sur la chronologie des Séleucides," REA 57 (1955) 106
Shear's (30-32)
W. B. Dinsmoor, The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age [Cambridge, Mass., 1931] 495-98, 503
Gabriele Marasco, Economia, commerci e politica nel Mediterraneo fra il III e il II secolo a.C., Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Storia, Studi 1 (Florence, 1988) 126-27
Christian Habicht, Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte Athens im 3. Jahr- hundert v. Chr., Vestigia 30 (Munich, 1979) 46-47 with n. 5.
33
IG XI 2.161A, 83-84 (279), 162A, 46 (273), 199C, 58- 60 (274), 203A, 60 (269)
Clinton [supra, n. 17] 111
Jardé 174
IG XI 2.161A, 83-84
IG XI 2.162A, 46, and 199C, 58-60 and 203A
IG XI 2.158A, 38-39
Lenaion [1]
Diod. 5.82.1 (Asia Minor)
Milet 3.147.7 (Kios)
34
IG XI 2.161A, 84
35
IG II2 650, 651
SEG 24.122, 653, 654, 655, 670.
36
Rostovtzeff 168-69.
37
Michael J. Osborne, "Kallias, Phaidros and the Revolt of Athens in 287 B.C.," ZPE 35 (1979) 181-94
G. Reger, "Athens and Tenos in the Early Hellenistic Age," CQ 42 (1992) 371-79.
Fritz Heichelheim ("Zu Pap. Michigan III 173 und Hesperia V [1936] 419 ff. Nr. 15," Aegyptus 17 [1937] 64 n. 3)
IG II2 1272
SIG3 947
Menekles (ll. 10-11)
Benjamin D. Meritt, "Athenian Archons 347/6-48/7 B.C.," Historia 26 [1977] 174
ll. 5-6
Janice J. Gabbert, "The Anarchic Dating of the Chremonidean War," CJ 82 [1986/87] 230-35
38
IK Erythrai 1.28.
Louis Robert, "Des Carpathes à la Propontide, IX: Un mot nouveau dans une inscription de Samothrace," Studii Clasice 16 (1974) 85-88.
Sencer Şahin, "Eine neue Ehrung für Polykritos aus Erythrai," Belleten 46 (1983) 487-505.
39
supra, n. 21.
40
SIG3 976.25-26
Gargola (supra, n. 10) 12-28
Migeotte, "Pour tous?" in Opes Atticae (supra, n. 10) 297-308
S. V. Tracy, "Hands in Samian Inscriptions of the Hellenistic Period," Chiron 20 (1990) 92
"The Date of the Grain Decree from Samos," Chiron 20 (1990) 97-100.
41
OGIS 266.1-2 (ca. 260-250 B.C.)
Marcel Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques, BEFAR 169 (Paris, 1949-50; reprint 1987), 2.739-41
B. Virgilio, "Eumene I° e i mercenari di Filetereia e di Attaleia," Studi Classici e Orientali 32 (1982) 131-32.
42
SIG3 495.24-25 (ca. 230 B.C.)
IG V 2.437.6, 11-13 (ca. 100 B.C.).
43
IG V 2.437.11
IG XII 5.714
44
[Dem.] 34.39
IG II2 360.9, 30, 54, 68 (Athens, 5 dr, same period)
Garnsey 154-55.
45
SEG 24.154.17-19
Heinz Heinen, Untersuchungen zur hellenistischer Geschichte des 3. Jahrhunderts v. Chr., Historia Einzelschrift 20 (Wiesbaden, 1972) 152-54
Praktika 1985 (1990), 9, 13-14 (non vidi)
Christian Habicht, "Athens and the Ptolemies," Cl Ant 11 (1992) 73 n. 26.
Basileios C. Petrakos, "[Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters]," ArchDelt. 22 (1967)
A, Meletai, 45 n. 38.
IG II2 400.8
IG II2 499.16-17
46
Thomas Figueira, Phoenix 40 (1986) 165.
Robin Seager, Historia 15 (1966) 172-84.
47
[Dem.] 56
[Arist.] Oik. 2, 1352a33.
48
Carmine Ampolo, "Il pane quotidiano delle città antiche fra economia e antropologia," Opus 5 (1986) 147
49
Alain Bresson, "Rhodes: Une famille camiréenne de commerçants en blé," Index 9 (1980) 144 and passim.
50
Keith Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves: Sociological Studies in Roman History, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1978) 146 n. 24
Garnsey, Gallant, and Rathbone (supra, n. 29) 43 n. 55
Fritz Heichelheim, "Sitos," RE Suppl. 6 [1935] 819-92)
Thomas W. Gallant, "Crisis and Response: Risk- Buffering Behavior in Hellenistic Greek Communities," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19 [1989] 407 n. 27
51
Bruneau (supra, no. 4) 260-64, esp. 261
IG XI 2.203A, 57
ID 440A, 62-63 (174 B.C.)
J. Tréheux, "Les hiéropes déliens de 171 avant J.-C." BCH 109 (1985) 493 n. 29
id., "Notes de lecture," BCH 110 (1986) 431.
52
Kostas Buraselis, Das hellenistische Makedonien und die Ägäis: Forschungen zur Politik des Kassandros und der drei ersten Antigoniden (Antigonos Monophthalmos, Demetrios Poliorketes und Antigonos Gonatas) im Ägäischen Meer und in Westkleinasien, Münchener Beiträge zur Papy- rusforschung und Antiken Rechtsgeschichte 73 (Munich 1982) 119-41, 144-45.
Livy 44.29.1, 3-4 (168 B.C.).
54
IG XI 4.691 and 840 (
ID 1408A, 2.46
M.-F. Baslez, "Déliens et étrangers domiciliés à Délos (166-155)," REG 89 [1976] 351
IG XI 4.1049.6-7.
55
M.-F. Baslez and Claude Vial, "La diplomatic de Délos dans le premier tiers du IIe siècle." BCH 111 (1987) 281-312.
56
Vial 357-67.
57
R. Bogaert, Banques et banquiers dans les cités grecques (Leiden, 1966) 126-65.
58
Vial 237-39 on the sitōnai.
59
Baslez and Vial (supra, n. 55) 281-312
ID 455Ab, 9
ID 399A, 36-38, 47-49
ID 399A, 20-23.
60
Vial 237 n. 249.
61
IG XI 2.159A, 53-54.
Shear, ll. 50-55.
62
ID 354.10-13, 13-15.
63
ID 362, comm., p. 148.
65
supra, n. 29.
66
ID 442A, 100-106
Vial 139 n. 78.
Philippe Gauthier, "Sur le don de grain numide à Délos: Un pseudo-Rhodien dans les comptes des hiéropes," in Comptes et inventoires dans les cités grecques: Actes du colloque de Neuchâtel en I'honneur de Jacques Tréheux, ed. Denis Knoepfler (Neuchâtel, 1988) 61-69.
67
Garnsey 81
Larsen 345.
68
Larsen 345
69
Vial 140-43
Migeotte 31.
70
Posideon (A118-19)
Vial 140 n. 86.
71
Gargola (supra, n. 10) 17-23
Migeotte in Hommage Pascal (supra, n. 10) 294-95.
Strubbe (supra, n. 10) 115-16
Larsen 348
Contra, Migeotte, op. cit. 298
Migeotte 32.
72
Bruneau (supra, n. 4) 262-63
Vial 17-20.
73
Gallant 62-75
Foxhall-Forbes 41-90.
IG XI 2.158.
74
Sallares 42-50
Tim G. Parkin, Demography and Roman Society (Baltimore, 1992).
76
Ansley J. Coale, Paul Demeny, and Barbara Vaughan, Regional Model Life Tables and Stable Populations2 (New York, 1983).
Parkin (supra, no. 74) 67-90 (with references), 80
Bruce Frier, "Roman Life Expectancy: Ulpian's Evidence," HSCP 86 (1982) 251 n. 84
Brent D. Shaw, "The Age of Roman Girls at Marriage: Some Reconsid- erations," JRS 77 (1987) 35 n. 25
Richard P. Sailer, "Men's Age at Marriage and Its Consequences in the Roman Family," CP 82 (1987) 31 with n. 27.
Mogens Herman Hansen, Demography and Democracy: The Number of Athenian Citizens in the Fourth Century B. C. (Herning, 1985) 11.
77
Ruth Oldenziel, "The Historiography of Infanticide in Antiquity: A Literature Stillborn," in Sexual Asymmetry: Studies in Ancient Society, ed. Josine Blok and Peter Mason (Amsterdam, 1987) 87-107
Cynthia Patterson, " 'Not Worth the Rearing': The Causes of Infant Exposure in Ancient Greece," TAPA 115 (1985) 111-21.
78
Foxhall-Forbes 71
Gallant 67-68.
80
Foxhall-Forbes 84
Foxhall-Forbes 44
Foxhall-Forbes 46
82
Migeotte 29-33, 26-27, 38-40
83
Ibid. 27-29, 35-37, 33-35.
84
Ibid. 24-26, 37-38.
85
IG XII 5.1010.5-6.
Ugo Fantasia, "Mercanti e 'sitonai' nelle città greche: In margine a tre documenti epigraphici della prima età ellenistica," CCC 5 (1984) 298 n. 34
306 n. 61.
Bresson (supra, n. 49) 147.
IG XII 5.1011
Léopold Migeotte, L'emprunt public dans les cités grecques (Québec, 1984) 210-12 no. 60.
86
Adolf Wilhelm, in Mélanges Gustave Glotz (Paris, 1932) 2.899-908.
87
Migeotte 24 (Karystos), IG XI 4.1055.9
Durrbach, Choix 50
IG XII Suppl. 234
G. Reger and M. Risser, in Landscape Archaeology as Long-Term History: Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands, ed. J. F. Cherry, J. L. Davis, and E. Mantzourani, Monumenta Archaeologica 16 (Los Angeles, 1991) 315 n. 13.
88
Migeotte 19 n. 1
29 n. 30.
n. 40.
89
Philippe Bruneau, "Contribution à l'histoire urbaine de Délos à l'époque hellénistique et à l'époque impériale," BCH 92 (1968) 633-709.
BCH 89 (1965) 981-91
90 (1966) 988-97
91 (1967) 870-82
92 (1968) 1101-23
93 (1969) 1031-44
99 (1975) 716-23
100 (1976) 799-821
111 (1987) 629-44
112 (1988) 755-78.
R. Vallois, Le portique de Philippe, EAD 7 (Paris, 1923)
L'architecture hellénique et hellénistique à Délos jusqu'à l'éviction des Déliens (166 av. J.-C.), vol. 1, Les monuments (Paris, 1944) 49, 65, 67-68 with n. 1.
Roland Etienne, Ténos II: Ténos et les Cyclades du milieu du IVe siècle avant J.-C. au milieu du IIIe siècle après J.-C., BEFAR 263 bis [Paris, 1990] 97
Roland Etienne and Jean-Pierre Braun, Ténos I: Le sanctuaire de Poseidon et d'Amphitrite, BEFAR 263 (Paris, 1986) 309-11.
90
G. Reger, "The Delian XΩMA," ZPE 74 (1988) 29-30
Vial 340-41.
91
M.-F. Baslez, "Le rô1e et la place des Phéniciens dans la vie économique des ports de l'Egée," Studia Phoenicia 5 (1987) 276
"Déliens et étrangers" (supra, n. 54) 351-52
92
Bogaert (supra, n. 37) 171-72, 176, 179-80, 182
Etienne (supra, n. 89) 112.
93
G. Reger, "The Hellenistic Silver Coinage of Paros," AJA 91 (1987) 272.
Etienne and Braun (supra, n. 89) 379-80.
94
IG XII 7.506.16
IG XI 4.1036.43-44
IG XI 4.1041.13-15.
Baslez and Vial (supra, n. 55) 281-312.
95
Larsen 347-48.
96
supra, n. 2.
97
Michèle Brunet, "Chôrai grecques antiques," part 2, "Le territoire délien" (thèse de doc- torat inédite, Université de Rennes II, 1988)
"Contribution à l'histoire rurale de Délos aux époques classique et hellénistique," BCH 114 (1990) 669-82
G. Reger, "Private Property and Private Loans on Independent Delos (314-167 B.C.)," Phoenix 46 (1992) 322-24.
S. B. Sutton in Landscape Archaeology (supra, n. 87) 385 tab. 20.1, 391 tab. 20.3, 396 tab. 20.4, and 400-401.
supra n. 12.
Jean-Yves Empereur and Maurice Picon, "Des ateliers d'amphores à Paros et à Naxos," and "Note complémentaire," BCH 110 (1986) 495-511, 647-53.
98
Durrbach, Choix pp. 57-58
Vial 341
Marasco (supra, n. 32) 131-32 with n. 30
Lionel Casson, "The Grain Trade of the Hellenistic World," in Ancient Trade and Society [Detroit, 1984] 70-95
TAPA 85 (1954) 168-87
Rostovtzeff 235, 221 (cf. 231-32)
Shear 30-31.
99
Garnsey 90
Crux (supra, n. 13) 62-75.
100
[Dem.] 56.9
Liv. 30.38.5
IG XII Suppl. 348
SEG XVIII 417
H. W. Pleket, Epigraphica, vol. 1, Texts on the Economic History of the Greek World, Textus Minores XXXI [Leiden, 1964] 9
Casson (supra, n. 14) 183-84.
101
Alan E. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology: Calendars and Years in Classical Antiquity, Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 1. Abteilung, 7. Teil (Munich, 1972) 99-101
E. J. Bickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World2, (Ithaca, 1980) 20.
102
IG XI 2.154.11
Bruneau (supra, n. 4) 92; 269,15; 287A, 42 (beginning of year)
ID 290.79
Bruneau (supra, n. 4) 11
103
G. Reger, "Apollodorus of Cyzicus and His Delian Garden," GRBS 32 (1991) 234.
105
Philip H. Davis, "The Accounts of the Theatre on Delos," AJA 41 (1937) 109
106
supra, n. 101.

Abbreviations and References

Abbreviations and References
BEFAR Bibliothèque des Écoles Françaises d'Athènes et de Rome
Durrbach, Choix Felix Durrbach, Choix d'inscriptions de Délos avec traduction et commentaire (Paris, 1921-22; reprint 1977)
EAD Exploration archéologique de Délos Foxhall-Forbes Lin Foxhall and H. A. Forbes, "[Unrepresented Characters]: the Role of Grain as a Staple Food in Classical Antiquity," Chiron 12 (1982) 41-90
Gallant Thomas W. Gallant, Risk and Survival in An- cient Greece: Reconstructing the Rural Domestic Economy (Stanford, 1991)
Garnsey Peter Garnsey, Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis (Cambridge, 1988)
Heichelheim, Wirt. Schw. Fritz Heichelheim, Wirtschaftliche Schwankungen der Zeit von Alexander bis Au- gustus, Beiträge zur Erforschung der wirtschaftlichen Wechsellagen Aufschwung, Krise, Stockung 3 (Jena, 1930)
Island Polity An Island Polity: The Archaeology of Exploita- tion in Melos, ed. Colin Renfrew and Malcolm Wagstaff (Cambridge, 1982)
Jardé Auguste Jardé, Les céréales dans l'antiquité grecque: La production (Paris, 1925; reprint 1979)
Larsen J. A. O. Larsen, "Roman Greece," in An Eco- nomic Survey of Ancient Rome, vol. 4, ed. Ten- ney Frank (Baltimore, 1938) 334-414
Migeotte Léopold Migeotte, "Le pain quotidien dans les cités hellénistiques: À propos des fonds perma- nents pour l'approvisionment en grain," Cahiers du centre G. Glotz 2 (1991) 19-41
Rathbone D. W. Rathbone, "The Grain Trade in the Hel- lenistic East," in Eighth International Economic History Congress, Budapest 1982, ser. B12, Trade in Staples in Antiquity (Greece and Rome), ed. P. Garnsey and C. R. Whittaker (Budapest, 1982) 44-51
Rostovtzeff Michael Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World (Oxford, 1941)
Sallares Robert Sallares, The Ecology of the Ancient Greek World (Ithaca, 1991)
Shear T. Leslie Shear, Jr., Kallias of Sphettos and the Revolt of Athens in 286 B.C., Hesperia Suppl. 17 (Princeton, 1978)
Vial Claude Vial, Délos indépendante (314-167 avant J.-C.): Étude d'une communauté civique et de ses institutions, BCH Suppl. 10 (Paris, 1984)
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