Much recent scholarship on "thysia" sees the meaning and function of the rite for the ancient Greeks to stem partly or largely from the beliefs and emotions surrounding the slaughter of the victim. Scholars have proposed that the Greeks experienced fear and awe when they killed animals for food, and that the source of these feelings was a perception of the slaughter of liverstock as akin to murder. This paper considers evidence for the ancient Greek experience of the rite of "thysia", with the ultimate aim of shedding light on current theories of sacrifice. My source is the extensive system of imagery of "thysia" in Attic vase-painting. I view this imagery not as a series of illustrations of the way "thysia" was performed but rather as a map of the way it was conceptualized. Analyzed in this way, the iconography of "thysia" yields information on the degree to which "thysia" was identified with slaughter, and on the emotions inspired by the rite. The visual terms of definition of "thysia" in this repertory are not slaughter and burnt offerings but rather edible animals and the preparation of meat in the context of feasts and festivals. The semantic range of this imagery is the basis for conclusions about the emotional connotations of "thysia". The depiction of slaughter and of unwilling victims may be associated with the iconography of revelry and appears in some scenes to be the focus of humor. Most significant are the employment of "thysia" in the depiction of victory and the development of several important scene types of "thysia" as subsets of the iconography of Dionysian symposion and kōmos. In these contexts, the imagery of "thysia" appears as a visual metaphor denoting joy and celebration.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Durand, Sacrifice 10-11
"Animals" 91-92.
2
G. Barbieri, in Barbieri and Durand, "Con il bue a spalla," Bollettino d'Arte 29 (1985) 3 and Pl. 1 and figs. 1-3
J.-L. Durand and A. Schnapp, "Sacrificial Slaughter and Initiatory Hunt," in C. Berard et al., A City of Images (Princeton, 1989) fig. 83 (here App. no. 18).
infra and n. 142
Durand, "Animals" fig. 7.
3
J.-P. Vernant, "At Man's Table: Hesiod's Foundation Myth of Sacrifice," Cuisine 21-86
Vernant, "Theory"
Durand, "Animals," "Ritual," Sacrifice
Detienne, "Culinary"; Dionysos Slain (Baltimore, 1979
translation of Dionysus mis à mort [Paris, 1977])
N. Loraux, "La cité comme cuisine et comme partage," Annales ESC 36 (1981) 614-22.
J. Svenbro, "A Bibliography of Greek Sacrifice," Cuisine 204-17
P. Schmitt-Pantel, "Sacrificial Meal and Symposium," Sympotica 14 n. 3.
4
F. Lissarague and A. Schnapp, "Imagerie des Grecs ou Grèce des imagiers," Le temps de la réflexion 2 (1981) 275-97, and specifically 280-82
Lissarague, "Around the Krater: An Aspect of Banquet Imagery," Sympotica 196
6
É. Benveniste: "Le 'sens' d'une forme linguistique se définit par la totalité de ses emplois, par leur distribution et par les types de liaisons qui en résultent" ("Problèmes sémantiques de la reconstruction," Word 10 [1954] 251).
7
Vernant, "Theory" 294.
8
Durand, "Ritual" 125
Detienne, "Culinary" 9.
Detienne, "Culinary" 10
Vernant, "Theory" 294.
Durand, "Ritual" 126-27
Durand and Schnapp (supra, n. 2) 54, 56-57
Detienne, "Culinary" 10.
9
J.-P. Vernant, "Le mythe promethéen chez Hésiode," in Mythe et société en Grèce ancienne (Paris, 1974) 177-94
"The Myth of Prometheus in Hesiod," in Myth and Society in Ancient Greece [Sussex, 1980] 168-85
R. L. Gordon, ed., Myth, Religion and Society [Cambridge, 1981] 43- 56)
"At Man's Table," Cuisine 21-86.
10
supra, n. 9.
11
Durand and Schnapp (supra, n. 2) 54
J.-L. Durand on thysia (supra, n. 3)
ibid. 57
ibid. 70
12
Durand and Schnapp (supra, n. 2) 54
Detienne, "Culinary," 9.
13
Burkert, "Sacrificial Ritual" 109.
Greek Religion, esp. 54-66
Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1979) esp. chap. 2.
Burkert emphasizes his debt to K. Meuli, "Griechische Opferbräuche," Phyllobolia (Festschrift Peter von der Mühll) (Basel, 1946) 185-288
Meuli, Gesammelte Schriften [Basel, 1975] 2.907-1021
A. Thomsen, "Der Trug der Prometheus," ArchRW 12 (1909) 460-90
R. Girard, Violence and the Sacred (Baltimore, 1977
Violence et le sacré [Paris, 1972]
Vernant, "Theory" passim
his comments on Burkert's "Glaube und Verhalten," SA 129-30
Durand, Sacrifice 4
Dionysos Slain (supra, n. 3) 23-24.
14
Burkert, Homo Necans 2.
15
Ibid. 40
ibid. 47
16
Burkert, "Sacrificial Ritual" 106, 109
ibid. 110
E. B. Tylor on the fear of the anima as a factor in the process of religious symbolization, Primitive Culture (London, 1871) chap. 7.
n. 18.
17
Burkert, Homo Necans 2
Burkert in R. G. Hamerton-Kelly, ed., Violent Origins (Stanford, 1987) 162 n. 10, 150-88.
18
supra, n. 16.
E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Theories of Primitive Religion (Oxford, 1965)
M. T. Hodgen, The Doctrine of Survivals (London, 1936), esp. 108-39.
19
Vernant, "Theory" 291 (generally), 297
Detienne, "Culinary" 13-20
Burkert in Hamerton-Kelly (supra, no. 17) 180.
Durand, "Animals" 89
20
supra and nn. 14, 15.
21
E. Durkheim, Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (London, 1915
J. W. Swain of Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse [Paris, 1912]) chap. 9, "The Idea of Spirits and Gods," 273-96
22
supra and n. 8.
Greek Religion 57
H. Hubert and M. Mauss, Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function (London, 1964)
"Essai sur la Nature et la Fonction du Sacrifice," L'Annee Sociologique 1898, 29-138.
23
Burkert in Hamerton-Kelly (supra, n. 17) 168.
24
A. Henrichs and G. Kirk, SA 126-28
Burkert's "Glaube und Verhalten," ibid. 90-125
Henrichs, Die Götter Griechenlands: Ihr Bild im Wandel der Religionswissenschaft (Bamberg, 1987) 29-30
Kirk points out in his comments on Vernant's "Theory," SA 31
25
K. Lehnstaedt, Prozessionsdarstellungen auf attischen Vasen (Munich, 1971).
F. Frontisi-Ducroux, Le dieu-masque: Une figure du Dionysos d'Athenes (Paris, 1991) 17-63.
supra and n. 4.
26
Schmitt-Pantel (supra, n. 3) passim.
O. Murray, "Sympotic History," Sympotica 9
ibid. n. 35
T. B. L. Webster, Potter and Patron in Classical Athens (London, 1972), esp. 42-62.
J. M. Hemelrijk, "The Gela Painter in the Allard Pierson Museum," BABesch 49 (1974) 138.
27
Supra, n. 3: 17.
28
Lehnstaedt (supra, n. 25).
29
Athens Acropolis 654
B. Graef and E. Langlotz, Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen (Berlin, 1925-32) 1.41, 42
S. Karouzou, "Fragments d'un cratère à volutes provenant de la collection Hélène Stathatos," BCH 79 (1955) figs. 14a,b, 15, pl. 9
supra, n. 2.
Schloss Fasanerei 130
ABV 315.3, Painter of Würzburg 252 (App. no. 9).
30
Hdt. 7.197
Ar. Nub. 256-57
E. Heracl. 529
IA 1080, 1476-78, 1567
H. C. Günther's Teubner edition (1988) ad loc.
M. Blech, Studien zum Kranz bei den Griechen, RGVV 38 (Berlin, 1982) 303-5.
London E 284, ARV2 1107.7
Addenda2 330
Athens 16260, ARV2 1123.3
Addenda2 332.
31
Boston 85.25, ARV2 1149.9, 1588
Addenda2 335
E. Simon, Festivals of Attica (Madison, 1983) pll. 16.2-17.2.
infra, n. 160.
32
F. van Straten, "The God's Portion in Greek Sacrificial Representations," in R. Hägg et al., eds., Early Greek Cult Practice (Stockholm, 1988) 51-68
33
Ferrara T416 B VP, ARV2 1144.21, Addenda2 334
Villa Giulia, ARV2 60.66bis, Addenda2 165 (App. no. 28).
Naples Heyd. 1763, ARV2 302.13
infra, nn. 87, 88, 91.
35
Hermes Kriophoros: bf olpe, Paris F 159, ABV 450.3, Addenda2 114, Painter of Louvre F 161
Brussels A 1378, ARV2 117.1, the Epidromos Painter (App. no. 29).
H. Payne, Archaic Marble Sculpture from the Acropolis (London, 1950) pll. 2-4 and p. 67.
36
Graef and Langlotz (supra, n. 29) 2, pl. 7, no. 74
Athens Acropolis 739, ARV2 1092.76, Addenda2 328.
Durand, Sacrifice figs. 1-13 and pp. 32-41
K. Schauenberg, CVA Heidelberg 1 [Germany 10, 1954] pl. 33.5 and p. 56
Munich 1527, ABV 392.5, Addenda2 103
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 10
Orvieto Faina 27, ARV2 296.3, Addenda2 211
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 11.
37
infra, n. 41.
38
London E 455, ARV2 1028.9, 1678
Addenda2 317
London E 456, ARV2 1051.17
Addenda2 321.
39
E. de Miro, ArchCl 20 (1968) 238-48, pll. 85, 86,1, 87-92
Taranto, ARV2 1337.4
Addenda2 366
St. Petersburg 43f, ARV2 1346.1
Addenda2 368
Istanbul, ARV2 603.41
Addenda2 267.
40
infra, n. 41
H. Froning, Dithyrambos und Vasenmalerei in Athen, Beiträge zur Archäologie 2 (Würzburg, 1971), 52-66
41
Gotha 51, ARV2 1028.10
Addenda2 317
London E 455, ARV2 1028.9, 1678
Addenda2 317
London E 456, ARV2 1051.17
Addenda2 321
Webster (supra, n. 26) 50-51 and pll. 4,5.
London E 494, ARV2 1079.3
Vienna 1144, ARV2 1188
Addenda2 341
Ferrara, ARV2 1038.2ter
Addenda2 319
St. Petersburg 33a, ARV2 1408.1
Addenda2 374
Taranto, ARV2 1337.4
Addenda2 366
St. Petersburg 43f, ARV2 1346.1
Addenda2 368.
Naples H 2200, ARV2 1440.1
Addenda2 377
Durand, Sacrifice 123-28
infra, n. 103
42
supra, n. 2
Darmstadt 478, ARV2 1146.48
Addenda2 335
Oxford 1911.617, ARV2 559.152
Addenda2 259
Pan Painter (App. no. 45)
Florence, pl. 4, 30 and 58, pl. 5, 2 and 6-8, pl. 12, 35, pl. 15, 29
Heidelberg 12, 35
Naples Astarita 249, ARV2 146.3, the Epeleios Painter (App. no. 31; here Fig. 14)
Palermo V 661a, ARV2 472.210, Addenda2 246, Makron
Berlin 3232, ARV2 117.2, Addenda2 174, the Epidromos Painter (App. 30)
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 80
E. Simon, "Satyr-Plays on Vases in the Time of Aeschylus," The Eye of Greece (Cambridge, 1982) pl. 32b.
43
Burkert ("Sacrificial Ritual" 105)
Frankfurt, MusVF Σ 413, ARV2 1115.31bis, Addenda2 331
London E 494, ARV2 1079.3
supra, n. 41
M. H. Jameson, "Sophocles' Antigone 1005-22: An Illustration," in M. Cropp et al., eds., Greek Tragedy and Its Legacy [Calgary, 1986] n. 15
van Straten [supra, n. 32] fig. 18b)
St. Petersburg 774, ARV2 1144.14, Addenda2 334
Jameson ibid. 61
Louvre G 496, ARV2 1190.24, Addenda2 342
Jameson ibid. n. 15
Athens NM 595, ABL 226.8
Jameson ibid. 61-62
n. 15
ibid. passim
app. 61-67.
44
E. Norden, Agnostos Theos (Stuttgart, 1923) 143-76
Burkert, Greek Religion 73-75.
45
Men. Dysk. 451-53
Pherekrates 28 K-A
Eubulus 127 K-A.
46
van Straten (supra, n. 32) 60.
[Aesch.] PV 496-99
Jameson (supra, n. 43) 61
n. 6
van Straten (supra, n. 32) 60
nn. 34
35.
47
Jameson (supra, n. 43) 60-61
van Straten (supra, n. 32) 60
app. and ill. 61-67.
48
Bf lekythos, NY 41.162.29
ABL 225.3
ABV 507
Addenda2 126.
49
infra.
50
J. Rudhardt, Notions fondamentales de la pensée religieuse et actes constitutifs de culte dans la Grèce classique (Geneva, 1958) 28
R. Parker, Miasma (Oxford, 1983) 8.
52
Durand, "Ritual" n. 17
Boardman's designation in Athenian Black-Figure Vases (New York, 1974) of fig. 287
ARV2 553.20, 875.16.
53
Louvre G 112, ARV2 117.7
Addenda2 174
Durand, "Animals" fig. 6
54
supra, n. 2
55
Durand (in Barbieri and Durand, supra, n. 2) 7-8
Villa
Giulia, ARV2 60.66bis
Addenda2 165
B. A. Sparkes and L. Talcott, The Athenian Agora, vol. 12, Black and Plain Pottery (Princeton, 1970) 211-16, pll. 81-87.
56
A. Magi, CVA Florence 4 (Italy 38, 1964) pll. 117,1- 2, 118,1-3 (App. no. 56).
E. Hel. 1560-64
El. 813
Paus. 8.9.2.
Hephaistia, 421-20 B.c.
Sokolowski LSS 13.
IG II2 1006.9, 1008.8,9,12, 1011.8, 1028.10,13,28, 1029.7,16.
Rudhardt (supra, n. 50) 261
Durand in Barbieri and Durand (supra, n. 2) 12-14.
57
Supra, n. 42 no. 3.
Beazley, Campana Fragments in Florence (Florence, 1933) 11
infra
58
T. H. Carpenter, Dionysian Imagery in Archaic Greek Art (Oxford, 1986) 117-23
G. Hedreen, Silens in Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painting (Ann Arbor, 1992) 88-90.
59
ABV 211
Paralipomena 100
G. Berthiaume, Les rôles du mageiros, Mnemosyne Suppl. 70 (Leiden, 1982), pl. 19.
ABV 430.25
Addenda2 111
Athens, Acropolis 965, ARV2 253.56.
Louvre 10918, ARV2 467.130
Addenda2 245, Makron (here Fig. 15).
60
Salerno, ABV 520.34
Agrigento 26 (715), ARV2 521.49.
61
Supra, n. 56
62
J. Casabona, Recherches sur le vocabulaire des sacrifices en grec, des origines à la fin de I'époque classique (Aix-en-Provence, 1966): on hiereion 30-32
thyō 80.
63
M. P. Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Religion3 (Munich, 1967) 1.145
Wilamowitz, Der Glaube de Hellenen (Berlin, 1931-32; repr. Basel, 1959) 1.283
Meuli (supra, n. 13) 215-16/ 938
infra, n. 132.
64
Berthiaume (supra, n. 59) 62-69.
65
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 80
66
Supra, n. 21: 47.
67
supra
68
Casabona (supra, n. 62): on thyō 76-85
thysia 124-31
Rudhardt (supra, n. 50)
thysia esp. 263-64.
69
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 131-39.
70
Nilsson (supra, n. 63) 1.145
A. D. Nock, "The Cult of Heroes," HThR 37 (1944) 151
Z. Stewart, ed., Arthur Darby Nock: Essays on Religion and the Ancient World [Cambridge, Mass., 1972] 2.584).
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 81
71
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 131-34.
72
Blech (supra, n. 30) 302-4.
73
Durand, "Animals" fig. 11
Berthiaume (supra, n. 59) pl. 13 (App. no. 25).
74
Warsaw 142464, ARV2 797.142
Addenda2 290
Durand, "Animals" fig. 10. (App. no. 47).
75
Durham, Duke University 1972.1
A. Shapiro, Art, Myth and Cul- ture: Greek Vases from Southern Collections (New Orleans, 1981) 103
ARV2 736.117
Addenda2 283.
Plato's Symposium (197d)
Casabona [supra, n. 62] 131
76
Pliny, NH 34.81.
77
Dijon 1223, ABV 360.6
ARV2 225.3 (App. no. 35)
Florence 3930, ARV2 170.3 (App. no. 34).
infra, n. 101
78
supra.
79
Durand, Sacrifice 145-73
Durand and Schnapp (supra, n. 2) 56-57
80
ABV 255.6
Addenda2 66
ARV2 4.12
Addenda2 150
ABV 370.130, 696
Addenda2 98
Rhodes 13458
ABV 437.1
Addenda2 112
Thebes, ABV 536.38
ABV 608.3
Addenda2 142
Catania, Gemarelli, ABV 608
Hanover, 1963.47
A.-B. Follman, CVA Hannover 1 (Germany 34, 1971) pl. 15.
Durand, Sacrifice figs. 70, 72-77.
ABV 213.7
ABV 536.35
Addenda2 133
ABV 536.36
Addenda2 133
ABV 536.37
Addenda2 133
ABV 537
Addenda2 133.
Durand, Sacrifice figs. 81-85.
81
Durand, Sacrifice 157, 145-73 passim.
82
Burkert, Structure (supra, n. 13) 83-85.
G. K. Galinsky, The Herakles Theme (Oxford, 1972) 81-93.
83
Supra, n. 48.
S. Patitucci, CVA Ferrara 2 (Italy 48, 1971) pl. 36,1
N. Alfieri, Spina (Bologna, 1979) no. 12.
O. Benndorf, Griechische und sicilische Vasenbilder [Berlin, 1883] pl. 27,1
84
I. Konstantinou, Deltion 182 (1963) 130 pl. 167
Bérard 64.
85
Supra, n. 42 no. 5
86
Athens Acropolis 654
supra, n. 29
87
supra, n. 42.
supra, n. 33.
supra, n. 84.
(ARV2 279-82) 1642 (App. no. 54).
J. Boardman, "A Greek Vase from Egypt," JHS 78 (1958) Pl. IIb.
88
Louvre E 876, ABV 90.1, Addenda2 24, Painter of Louvre E 876.
C. Bérard and C. Bron, "Satyric Revels," in Bérard et al. (supra, n. 2) figs. 187a-e (App. no. 3).
89
T. B. L. Webster, "Greek Comic Costume: Its History and Diffusion," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 36 (1954) 584
Hedreen (supra, n. 58) 136.
90
Supra, n. 84.
Berard 61-73.
ABV 592.5bis
Paralipomena 297
Salonika 1602, Paralipomena 240, Bérard fig. 3
Athens Agora P 24469, Paralipomena 227
Jerusalem, ABV 493.103
Vienna, ABV 504.16.
Rome, Conservatori 81, ABV 439.5
Paralipomena 190, Bérard fig. 4
Manchester, City Hall 1885.21A a33, Addenda2 141, Berard fig. 5
Berlin 1930, ABV 573.2, Addenda2 137, Bérard fig. 6
skyphos, NY 29.131.4, ARV2 381.176
Addenda2 227.
Louvre CA 2209, Paralipomena 156, Bérard fig. 8.
Ferrara 184 (T 683), Addenda2 137, Berard fig. 1
Naples 2731, ABV 573.8.
91
Athens Acropolis 1281, ABL 250.29
London B 79, ABL 250.30
Bologna, Museo Civico D.L. 109, ABL 253.15.
J. Burow, CVA Tübingen 3 (Germany 47, 1980) pl. 6.4.
Zurich market (Arete), Paralipomena 211
infra, n. 128.
92
infra, n. 123
93
Münzen und Medaillen AG Basel 93, Auktion xxii, 13 Mai 1961, no. 173, and pl. 58,I.
infra, n. 103
Bologna PU 286
supra, n. 91
supra, n. 29
94
Schmitt-Pantel (supra, n. 3) 17
Boeotian bf tripod pyxis, Berlin (West) 1727, ABV 29.1
Addenda2 8
95
supra, n. 59.
Wirzburg 474, ARV2 173.10
Addenda2 184
96
ABV 520.27ter, 704
Addenda2 129, Theseus Painter (App. no. 13).
Stuttgart, Würtem- bergischisches Landesmuseum KAS 74, Paralipomena 258 (App. no. 14)
infra.
Athens Acrop. 842, ABV 369.119
A. Malagardis, "Deux temps d'une fête athénienne sur un skyphos attique," AK 28 (1985) 71-92 and pl. 19
Bf amphora, Berlin 1690, ABV 151.11
Munich 1441, ABV 243.44, Affecter (App. no. 7).
97
supra, n. 58.
supra, n. 42
P. E. Arias, "Una nuova rappresentazione di splanchnoptes," Studi in onore di Luisa Banti (Rome, 1965) pll. 8-9, pp. 23-27
A. Lezzi-Hafter, Der Shuwalow-Maler (Mainz, 1976) 108, S 62, pll. 11, 49.117,118, figs. pp. 53, 61, 83.
supra, n. 95
Brooklyn 59.34, ARV2 604.57, Addenda2 267
98
Louvre E 876 (supra, n. 88).
Hedreen (supra n. 58) 136
99
Supra, n. 91.
100
Zürich (loan) ARV2 53.1bis
Addenda2 163 (App. no. 27).
101
Ferrara 9410, ARV2 266.85
Addenda2 205
C. Bron and F. Lissarrague, "Looking at the Vase," in Bérard et al. (supra, n. 2) figs. 4-5 (App. no. 38).
102
Louvre G 742, ARV2 555.90 (App. no. 43).
Boston 98.882, ARV2 279.7
Addenda2 208.
103
supra, n. 91.
Froning (supra, n. 40) 5-28
Webster (supra, n. 26) 117-18.
Munich 2412, ARV2 1036.5
Addenda2 318
London E 284, ARV2 1107.7
Addenda2 330
Athens 16260, ARV2 1123.3
Addenda2 332
Bologna PU 286, ARV2 1158.iii
Addenda2 337 (App. no. 51)
A. Milchhöfer, "Bacchische Siegesfeier," AZ 38 [1880] 182-83, pl. XVI
Froning [supra, n. 40] 19 n. 22
Ruvo, Jatta 1093, ARV2 1184.1
Addenda2 340
Paris C 10754, ARV2 228.32
Addenda2 199.
Herakles vases infra, n. 104.
104
E. de Miro, "Nuovi contributi sul pittore di Kleophon," ArchCl 20 (1968) 238-48, pll. 85, 86,1, 87-92.
Herakles sacrificing on Lemnos, supra, n. 41.
supra, n. 41
Froning (supra, n. 40) 5-28.
105
supra, nn. 103
104
supra, n. 91
supra, n. 29.
supra, nn. 87-88 and 93.
supra, nn. 42
97.
supra at nn. 93-99.
V. Continuation of thysia
supra following n. 93.
infra, n. 108.
supra, n. 96.
infra at nn. 108-12.
106
supra, nn. 41
104.
London E 455, London E 456, Gotha 51 (all supra, n. 41)
Athens 16260 (supra, n. 30).
supra, n. 41
107
Oxford 1931.12, ARV2 884.73 (App. 48).
108
Athens Agora P 1052, ARV2 1190.32
Addenda2 342
New York 56.171.49, ARV2 1347.3
Mannheim CG 123, ARV2 1435
Ad- denda2 377
Athens 1548 (CC 1873)
G. van Hoorn, Choes and Anthesteria [Leiden, 1951] 65 no. 45, fig. 152a,b
H. Metzger, Les représentations dans la céramique attique du IVe siècle [Paris, 1951] 354,25, pl. 46,2
Leipzig T 958 (Metzger 354,23, pl. 46,1)
St. Petersburg St 2070 KAB 31 (van Hoorn 136 no. 578)
H. Metzger, Recherches sur I'imagerie athénienne [Paris, 1965] pl. 48.1
J.-L. Durand "Le boeuf à la ficelle," in C. Bérard et al., Images et société en Grèce ancienne [Lausanne, 1987] fig. 12
Durand ibid., passim.
109
Supra, n. 56.
110
Boston 01.8109, ARV2 553.40
Addenda2 258. (App. no. 42).
111
infra
Los Angeles A 5933.50.28, ABV 395
Copenhagen 8759, ABL 257.82.
London B 356, ABL 245.88
Paralipomena 283.
112
Dem. De Fals. Leg. 192-93
Burkert, "Sacrificial Ritual," esp. 98- 100.
Thuc. 7.2
Plutarch, Nikias
Plato, Alcib. II 148d-e
Dem. De Corona 86
Aeschin. Ctes. 187
DS 17.40.1 (Alexander).
113
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 131-32
Thuc. 2.38
Pl. Resp. 364b-c, 364e-65a.
114
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 131-32.
116
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 18 and pp. 91-95
Durand and Schnapp (supra, n. 2) fig. 79.
117
Ferrara 184 (T 683), Addenda2 137, Bérard fig. 1
ABV 573.8
supra, n. 91
Bérard 61-73
P. Boyancé, "L'antre dans les mystères de Dionysos," RendPontAcc 32 (1960-61) 107-27
118
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 79 nos. d-h
Durand and Schnapp (supra, n. 2) fig. 79 nos. 5-11.
Moscow, Hist. Museum, 86964, 55765, Paralipomena 287
119
Bérard 65-73.
120
Toronto 927.39.3 (360) ABV 373.180
Addenda2 99
Hemelrijk (supra, n. 26) app. V p. 157 no. 17
supra, n. 115.
Burkert, "Sacrificial Ritual" 99 n. 25
121
Boston 76.53, Addenda2 142
ABV2 519.5
Simon (supra, n. 31) pl. 16.1.
Ferrara 168 (T 773), Addenda2 110
Hemelrijk (supra, n. 26) figs. 26, 27, 29-32, p. 128.
W. Technau, "Die Göttin auf dem Stier," Jdl 52 (1937) 76-103
M. C. Villaneuva-Puig, "À propos d'une menade aux sangliers sur une oenochoe," RA, 1983, 247-52
122
Durand, "Ritual" 123
Villaneuva-Puig (supra, n. 121) 251-52
123
NY, 41.162.255, ABL 247
P. Alexan- drescu and S. Dimitriou, CVA Bucharest 2 (Romania 2, 1968) pl. 42,1-2
Bérard 71-72
Athens Agora 920 (P 24520) Paralipomena 231
Athens Agora 919 (P 24519), Addenda2 124.
124
supra, n. 93.
125
supra, n. 35.
Louvre G 185, ARV2 207.142
Addenda2 194
Bérard et al. (supra, n. 2) fig. 177.
126
Villaneuva-Puig (supra, n. 121) 251-52.
127
Supra at nn. 106-12
supra, n. 111
supra, n. 108.
128
supra, n. 91.
129
Supra, n. 88.
130
supra.
131
supra, nn. 43
49.
132
Eustathius on Od. 3.470
G. S. Kirk, "Some Methodological Pitfalls in the Study of Greek Sacrifice," SA 67
supra, n. 18.
133
Hamerton-Kelly (supra, n. 17) 180
Girard (supra, n. 13)
134
P. Stengel, Opferbräuche der Griechen (Leipzig, 1910) 93
Nock (supra, n. 70) 158-59/ 590-93.
Nock ibid. 161/592
Burkert, Homo Necans 9 n. 41
135
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 197-210.
136
Porph. Abst. 2.44.
137
Stengel (supra, n. 134) 92-102
Nock (supra, n. 70) 161/592
Rudhardt (supra, n. 50) 272-81
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 180-93, 336-39
Burkert, Greek Religion 59-60
W. K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, Part 3 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1979) 83-90
A. Henrichs, "Human Sacrifice in Greek Religion," SA 195-235, esp. 213-14
138
Burkert, Greek Religion 60
Pritchett (supra, n. 137) 87.
139
Casabona (supra, n. 62) 83-84
140
Ibid. 83-85
Burkert says, "Sacrificial Ritual" 103.
141
Durand and Schnapp (supra, n. 2) 61-70
A. Furtwängler, "Erwerbungen der Antiken-sammlungen in Deutschland: Berlin," AA, 1895, 35-36 fig. 10.
142
Tyrrhenian neck amphora (ovoid), London 97.7.272 ABV 97.27
Addenda2 26
Durand, "Animals" fig. 7.
143
Athens 1695, ARV2 1204.2
Addenda2 344
L. Deubner, Attische Feste [Berlin, 1932] pl. 2
Deubner, ibid. 44
Detienne, "The Violence of Wellborn Ladies: Women in the Thesmophoria," Cuisine 134
144
Cleveland 26.242, ARV2 1570, 1637 under 43bis
Addenda2 389
A. Griffiths, "Patroklos the Ram (Again)," BICS 36 (1989) pl. 9.
R. Lacey, in G. F. Pinney and B. S. Ridgway, eds., Aspects of Ancient Greece (Allentown, 1979) 71.
145
Basel, AntMus, BS 477, ARV2 361.7
Addenda2 222.
M. Schmidt, "Der Zorn des Achill," Opus Nobile: Festschrift UlfJansen (Wiesbaden, 1969) 140-52
A. Griffiths, "A Ram Called Patroklos," BICS 32 (1985) 49-50
op. cit. (supra, n. 144) 138.
146
Durand, "Animals" 91
Vernant, "Theory" 295.
147
supra, n. 53.
148
appendix pp. 27-30 in Schmitt-Pantel (supra, n. 3).
Durand and Schnapp (supra, n. 2)
H. Frankfort, Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient (London, 1970) figs. 212-16.
149
supra, n. 16.
150
Copenhagen ABc 26, Paralipomena 241
E. Pottier, CVA Louvre 6 [Paris, 1929] pl. 62,1,4,5
Boston 13.195, ARV2 35.1
Addenda2 158.
151
Supra, n. 108.
Durand (supra, n. 108)
152
Athens 1366, ARV2 1444.1, the Painter of Athens 1366.
153
C, Getty 83.AE.923
Getty Museum Journal 12 (1984) 246
154
Supra, n. 102.
155
Supra, n. 96.
Louvre CA 1837, ABL 252.60 pl. 43.2
Athens 515, ABL 252.58 pl. 43.1.
156
Berlin, West 1966.62, ARV2 555.91bis, 1659
Addenda2 258
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 58 (App. no. 44).
Louvre G 221, ARV2 227.8
Addenda2 199
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 61 (App. no. 36).
Philadelphia 2448, ARV2 337.24
Addenda2 218
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 59.
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 60.
Villa Giulia 50323, ARV2 658.31.
157
Stuttgart KAS 74 (supra, n. 96)
Louvre G 742 (supra n. 102)
Berlin 1727 (supra, n. 94)
Berlin 1690 (supra, n. 96).
158
Athens Acropolis 607, ABV 107.1, 607
Addenda2 29.
Athens Agora. Fr. a: A-P 2197, 2117, 2190, 2106, 2043
fr. b: A-P 1908, 1710A
fr. c: A-P 2494
fr. d: A-P 17108
C. Roebuck, "Pottery from the North Slope of the Acropolis 1937-1938," Hesperia 9 (1940) no. 80, fig. 22, p. 183.
159
Athens, ARV2 554.82
Addenda2 259
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 26a-d.
W. Kraiker, review of J. D. Beazley, Der Pan- Maler, Gnomon 8 (1932) 644-45
H. Fuhrmann, "Zu der Busiris-Pelike des Pan-Maler," ÖJh 39 (1959) 27-30.
160
Das Tier in der Antike (Zurich, 1974) pl. 43 no. 257
Louvre G 221 (supra, n. 156).
161
Copenhagen NM 13.567
K. Friis Johansen, "Eine neue caeretaner Hydria," Opuscula Romana 4 [1962] 61-81
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 25
G. Bruns, in P. Wolters, Das Kabeirenheiligtum bei Theben 1 (Berlin, 1940) 120, K29, pl. 52,2
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 27a,b.
Durand, Sacrifice fig. 24.
162
supra, n. 53.
supra, n. 42, no. 5
Vienna 3691, ARV2 118.8
Addenda2 174
F. Studniczka, "Ein Opferbetrug des Hermes," JdI 6 (1891) 258-62
P. Zanker, Wandel der Hermesgestalt in der Attischen Vasenmalerei [Bonn, 1965] 33).
163
Burkert, Homo Necans 5 and n. 17.
J. Schelp, Das Kanoun: Der griechische Opferkorb (Wurzburg, 1975) 24-25
164
supra, n. 30.
165
supra.
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