[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Dover's comments in A. W. Gomme, A. Andrews, K. J. Dover, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides 4 (Oxford, 1970) 402-4.
W. L. Westermann, "Athenaeus and the Slaves of Athens," in M. I. Finley, ed., Slavery in Classical Antiquity (Cam- bridge, 1960) 87
R. Sargent, The Size of the Slave Population at Athens [reprint: Westport, Conn., 1973] 88
V. Ehren- berg, The People of Aristophanes (Oxford, 1951) 185
A. French, The Growth of the Athenian Economy (London, 1964) 138
A. W. Gomme, JHS 66 (1946) 129.
the chapter "The Devastation of Attica during the Peloponnesian War," esp. 137-43, in V. D. Hanson, Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece (Pisa, 1983)
P. Harvey, "New Harvests Reappear: The Impact of War on Agriculture," Athenaeum 64 (1986) 205-18
J. Ober, Helios 12.2 (1985) 91-102.
2
Westermann (supra, n. 1) 86.
his The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (Philadelphia, 1955) 7.
3
Sargent (supra, n. 1) 13, 15, 17, 20.
her "The Use of Slaves by the Athenians in Warfare, I: In Warfare by Land," CP 22 (1927) 208.
4
G. E. M. de Ste Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World: From the Archaic Age to the Arab Conquests (Ithaca, 1981) 506;
Westermann's Slave Systems (supra, n. 2) in CR (1957) 54-59.
5
M. I. Finley, The Ancient Economy (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1973) 24, 72.
his "Was Greek Civilization Based on Slave Labour?"
M. I. Finley, Economy and Society in Ancient Greece, ed. B. D. Shaw and R. P. Saller (New York, 1981) 110.
6
Hornblower, Thucydides (Baltimore, 1987) 36, 202.
A. W. Gomme, The Population of Athens in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B. C. (Oxford, 1933) 21: "It will be seen that these figures are largely guess-work, as indeed must be the 'more than 20,000' of Thucydides: who made that esti- mate?"
E. M. Wood, "Agricultural Slavery in Classical Greece," AJAH 8.1 (1983) 19: "Thucydides himself could hardly have known the figures with any degree of certainty."
7
De Ste Croix (supra, n. 4: 506)
below, n. 9.
8
Catherine Reid Rubincam, "Qualifications of Numerals in Thucydides," AJAH 4 (1979) 77- 95.
Aristotle's Athenaiōn Politeia
her "Qualification of Numerals in the Constitution of Athens," Phoenix 33 (1979) 293-307.
S. Dow, "Thucydides and the Number of Acharnian Hoplitai," TAPA 92 (1961) 66-80.
9
Rubincam (supra, n. 8) 85.
de Ste Croix (supra, n. 4: 506)
10
Ar. Vesp. 708
Hdt. 6.44.13, 8.24.4
Thuc. 7.27.5
H. W. Smythe, Greek Grammar, rev. ed. (Cambridge, Mass., 1956), 104
W. K. Pritchett, Dionysius of Halicar- nassus: On Thucydides [Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1975] 84-86
E.G. Turner, Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World, 2d ed., rev. P. J. Parsons, (London, 1987) 15
R. Devlin, "Numerical Corruption in Greek Historical Texts," Phoenix 44 (1990) 31-45.
11
Dover (supra, n. 1: 452)
Busolt (Griechische Geschichte III.2 [Gotha, 1904] 1370 n. 3)
Rubincam [supra, n. 8] 93-94 n. 37
12
Rubincam (supra, n. 8: 86)
Rubincam (supra, n. 8) 84.
13
Hanson (supra, n. 1) 111-51
Harvey (supra, n. 1) 215-16
W. G. Hardy, "The Hellen- ica Oxyrhynchia and the Devastation of Attica," CP 21 (1926) 346-55.
14
A. Jardé, Les céréals dans I' antiquité grecque [Paris, 1925] 72
A. B. Cooper, "The Family Farm in Ancient Greece," CJ 73.2 [1978] 162-73
Thucydides (7.19.2)
Xen. Hell. 1.1.35.
Hanson [supra, n. 1] 134-36
Thucydides 7.27
15
Westermann (Slave Systems [supra, n. 2] 466)
E. M. Wood, "Agricultural Slavery in Classical Athens," AJAH 8.1 [1983] 20
her Peasant-Citizen and Slave: The Foundations of Athenian Democracy [London, 1989]
16
S. Louffer. Der Bergwerkssklaven von Laureion 2 (Wiesbaden, 1956) 224-27
P. Gauthier, Un commentaire historique des 'Poroi' de Xénophon (Paris, 1976) 157-59
Dover (supra, n. 1) 406
C. A. van Rooy, "Fortifications in South Attica and the Date of the Thorikos," AClass 12 (1969) 176
B. S. Strauss, Athens after the Peloponnesian War (Ithaca, 1987) 46
R. J. Hopper, Trade and Industry in Classical Greece (London, 1979) 177-79
"The Attic Silver Mines in the Fourth Century B.C.," ABSA 48 (1953) 248 n. 346.
Thuc. 2.55.1
Gomme [supra, n. 1] 1 [Oxford, 1956] 162
Dover (supra, n. 1) 365- 66]
Westermann (supra, n. 1) 87 n. 1
Thucydides VI.91.7.
Xenophon (Vect. 4.44-48)
17
Hardy (supra, n. 13)
Hellenica Oxyrhynchia 12.5
Thucydides 7.27.5.
I. A. F. Bruce (An Historical Commentary on the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia [Cambridge, 1976] 115-16)
Jacoby, FGrH II A 28
P. R. McKechnie and S. J.Kern, eds., Hellenica Oxyrhynchia (Warminister, 1988) 86-89
B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, Hellenica Oxyrhynchia cum Theom- pompi et Cratippi Fragmentis (Oxford, 1909).
Elis (Xen. Hell. 3.2.26)
Acarnania (Hell. 4.6.6)
Corcyra (Hell. 6.2.6)
de Ste Croix (supra, n. 4) 506-7
Y. Garlan, Slavery in Ancient Greece, tr. J. Lloyd (Ithaca, 1988) 20-21
P. Ducrey, Le traitement des prisonniers de guerre dans la Grèce antique (Paris, 1968) 23-26
W. K. Pritchett (The Greek State at War, Part V [Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1991], 170-72)
Hanson (supra, n. 1) 117, 128-29.
de Ste Croix [supra, n. 4] 585-86
Pritchett (225-35)
Hesperia 25 [1956] 196, 276-81
R. Meiggs and D. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions [Oxford, 1969] 247
Thuc. 8.28.4
Diod. 14.11.4
18
Wood (supra, n. 15) 67
de Ste Croix (supra, n. 4) 505-7
M. H. Jameson, "Agricul- ture and Slavery in Classical Athens" CJ 73 (1978) 122-45.
R. Sallares (The Ecology of the Ancient Greek World [Ithaca, 1991] 57, 428-29 n. 22
Le Laurion antique et la technique grecque de la production de l'argent [Athens 1980]
20
Jameson (supra, n. 18) 136
Wood (supra, n. 15
193 n. 63
21
Thuc. 8.40.2.
Athenaeus (6.265d-266e)
Vita Herodotea Hom. 21.
V. Lambrinoudakis, "Ancient Farm- houses on Mount Aipos," in Chios: A Conference at the Homereion in Chios, 1984, ed. J. Board- man and C. E. Vaphopoulou-Richardson (Oxford, 1986) 295-304
C. Roebuck, "Chios in the Sixth Century B.C.," ibid. 82-3
E. Yalouris, "Notes on the Topography of Chios," ibid. 141-61
J. Boardman, "Delphinion on Chios," ABSA 51 (1956) 41-54
Garlan (supra, n. 17) 181-82
A. Fuks, "Slave War and Slave Troubles in Chios in the Third Century," Athenaeum 56 (1968) 102-11.
Jameson (supra, n. 18)
P. Halstead, "Traditional and Ancient Rural Economy in Mediterranean Europe: Plus Ça Change?" JHS 107 (1987) 77-87
A. Snodgrass, "Survey Archaeology and Rural Settlement of the Greek City," in O. Murray and S. Price, eds., The Greek City (Oxford, 1990) 113-36
S. and H. Hodkinson, "Mantineia and the Mantinike: Settlement and Society in a Greek Polis," ABSA 76 (1981), esp. 279-91.
R. Osborne, Demos: The Discovery of Classical Attika [Cambridge, 1985] 16-22; ABSA 80 [1985] 119-28
Snodgrass 126-28
Hanson [supra, n. 1] 38-42
Pritchett [supra, n. 17] 352-58
M. Langdon, "On the Farm in Classical Attica," CJ 86 [1991] 209-13
Thuc. (1.139.2)
Y. Garlan, "Les esclaves grecs en temps de guerre," in Actes du Colloque d'Histoire Sociale, Annales Littéraires de 1' Université de Besançon 128 (Paris, 1972) 29-62.
22
Alciphr. 3.24, 25, 26
Ar. Ach. 243, 259
Vesp. 433, 443-447
Pax 510-21, 1138-1139, 1146-1148 ("Let Syra call in Manes from the field"), 1249
Ecc. 591-93, 651
Plut. 26-29, 254, 510-21, 1105
Men. Dysc. 328-31, 414ff.
Georg. 56
Theophr. Char. 4.2-5
Dem. 42.18, 20, 21; 55.31, 35
[Dem.] 47.52, 56; 53.5-6
[Arist.] Oec. 1252b
Xen. Mem. 2.3.3, 9.5, 12.1-3, 13.10
Oec. 3.4; 7.35; 9.5; 12.5, 19; 14.6.9; 20.16
Pl. Leg. 6.761a, 7.805e
Philochorus FGrH 328 F 97, in Macrob. Sat. 1.10.22
Lys. 5.5; 7.4, 6, 9, 11, 16-17, 19, 24, 43; 24.6.
Od. 24.209ff.
Hes. Op. 470, 573, 597, 766
Eur. Rh. 74-75, 176-77
Athen. 272d
Thuc. 3.73, 8.40.2
Xen. Hell. 3.2.26, 4.6.6, 6.2.6, 7.5.14
de Ste Croix (supra, n. 4) 507 ff.
23
De Ste Croix (supra, n. 4) 506ff.
Jameson (supra, n. 18) 122-45
Garlan (supra, n. 17) 63- 65
Finley (supra, n. 5) 56-57
M. P. Hervagault and M. M. MacToux, "Escláves et sociétes d'après Démosthène," Actes du Colloque 1972 sur l'esclavage (Besançon, 1974) 57-102
M. C. Amouretti, Le pain et l'huile dans la Grèce antique (Paris, 1986) 212-14.
Sargent (supra, n. 1: 82)
Wood (supra, n. 18) 188 n. 10
J. Ober. Fortress Attica (Leiden, 1985) 22-23
his review of the scholarly debate in Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens (Princeton, 1989) 24-27.
Sallares (supra, n. 18: 56)
T. Gallant (Risk and Survival in Ancient Greece [Stanford, 1991] 33)
R. Osborne (supra, n. 21: 144-45)
24
Wood (supra, n. 15)
Gomme (JHS 79 [1959] 183)
25
Ar. Pax. 1249
Hyperides' term [Unrepresented Characters] (fr. 139a1)
H. Bolkestein, Economic Life in Greece's Golden Age (Leiden, 1958) 76
M. H. Jameson, "Agricul- tural Labor in Classical Greece," forthcoming among the published papers from a colloquium on Greek agriculture, May, 1990
26
Thuc. 7.75.5
Dover (supra, n. 1) 452
Jameson (supra, n. 25) n. 41
W.K. Pritchett, The Greek State At War, Part I (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1974) 49-51
Sargent (supra, n. 3) 205-7.
27
IG 22 1554-59, 1153, 1560-61, 1564-78
IG 12 374.
Thuc. 8.40.2
Athenaeus (6.272b-d)
28
Meiggs-Lewis 13, 49
Plato, Leg. 5.745 b-d
Arist. Pol. 7.1326b39-1327a40
Diod. 5.9
Plut. Agis 5
Tim. 22.
T. D. Boyd and M. H. Jameson "Urban and Rural Land Division in Ancient Greece," Hesperia 50.4 (1981) 327-42.
Cooper [supra, n. 14] 162-73
H. Wallon (Histoire de l'esclavage dans l'antiquité 1 [Paris, 1879] 246)
D.H. on Lys. 32
P. Garnsey (Famine and Food Supply in the Greco-Roman World [Cambridge, 1988] 92)
Cooper (supra, n. 14) 171
29
Thuc. 3.17.3
Ar. Ach. 1097, 1136
Antiphanes 16 (K)
Theophr. Char. 25.4
Pritchett (supra, n. 26) 50-51
Sargent (supra, n. 3) 206: "For the Athenians one slave for each hoplite was usually the case."
30
N. Andreyev, "Some Aspects of Agrarian Conditions in Attica in the Fifth to Third Centuries B.C. ," Eirene 12 (1974) 5-46
M. I. Finley. Studies in Land and Credit in Ancient Athens (New Brunswick, 1952) 58-60
D. M. Lewis, "The Athenian Rationes Centesimarum," in M. I. Finley, ed., Problèmes de la terre en Grèce ancienne (Paris, 1973) 187-212
Gallant (supra, n. 23) 82-87
Cooper (supra, n. 14) 162-73.
G. E. M. de Ste Croix, "The Estate of Phainippos," in E. Badian, ed., Studies Presented to Victor Ehrenberg (Oxford, 1966) 109-14
W. K. Pritchett, "The Attic Stelai, Part II," Hesperia 25 (1956) 275-76
Jardé (supra, n. 14) 120-22
Amouretti (supra, n. 23) 205-06.
31
[Arist.] Oec. 1252b12
Xen. Mem. 9.5, 13.10
Lewis [supra, n. 30] 198-99
Andreyev [supra, n. 30] 43
D.H. on Lys. 34 [hyp.]
A. H. M. Jones, Athenian Democracy (Oxford, 1957) 79-80.
Strauss (supra, n. 16: 78-81)
32
Gomme (supra, n. 6) 5
(supra, n. 16) 2.34-39
CQ 21 (1927) 142-51
E. Ruschenbusch, Athenische Innenpolitik in 5. Jhrhdt. v.Chr. (Bamberg, 1970) 13-140 (24,000)
Jones (supra, 32) 165 (23,000)
B. Strauss (supra, n. 16) 78 (22,000)
M. H. Hansen, "The Number of Athenian Hoplites in 431 B.C." SO 56 (1981) 23 (18,000).
33
Gomme (supra, n. 6) 18
Sargent (supra, n. 1) 60.
34
Plut. X. Orat. 843D.
Arist. AthPol. 24.3.3-4
Plato, Ion 534d4
Aristophanes' Wasps (709)
Plato, Critias 112d
[Plato] Ax. 368e
Philochorus FGrH 328 F 95.
Gomme (supra, n. 6: 3)
A. Zimmern (The Greek Commonwealth, 5th ed. [New York, 1931]) 334: "After the changes introduced by Cleisthenes the numbers were put up, and fifth-century Athenians hesitated between 20,000 and 30,000 as the 'right figure.' "
French (supra, n. 1: 194 n. 8
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