[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Mary W. Blundell, Helping Friends and Harming Enemies: A Study in Sophocles and Greek Ethics (Cambridge, 1989) 183.
2
R. P. Winnington-Ingram, Sophocles: An Interpretation (Cambridge, 1980) 246.
3
T. Woodard, "Electra by Sophocles: The Dialectical Design," HSCPh 68 (1964) 199.
4
T. Woodard, "Electra by Sophocles: The Dialectical Design (Part II)," HSCPh 70 (1965) 227.
5
C. Segal, "The Electra of Sophocles," TAPhA 97 (1966) 482.
6
A. J. A. Waldock, Sophocles the Dramatist (Cambridge, 1951) 169-95.
7
Segal (see n. 5: 482)
Choephoroi (794, 1022-23).
8
J. L. Austin (How to Do Things with Words [Oxford, 1962])
K. Elam (The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama [London, 1980] 156ff.)
10
B. Vickers, Towards Greek Tragedy [London, 1973] 569
11
R. Burton, in The Chorus in Sophocles' Tragedies (Oxford, 1980) 200-201
13
Woodard (n. 3)
Elam [n. 8] 162)
K. Reinhardt, Sophocles, trans. Hazel and David Harvey [Oxford, 1979] 137-39)
S. Schein, "Electra: A Sophoclean Problem Play," A&A 28 [1982] 69-80)
R. Minadeo, "Plot, Theme and Meaning in Sophocles' Electra," C&M 28 [1967] 114-42
C. Segal, Tragedy and Civilization: An Interpretation of Sophocles, Martin Classical Lectures 26 [Cambridge, 1981]
C. Whitman, Sophocles: A Study of Heroic Humanism [Cambridge, 1951] 155
14
F. H. Sandbach ('Sophocles, Electra 77-85,' PCPhS 23 [1977] 71-73)
15
Woodard I (n. 3) 164-66.
16
A. C. Pearson's OC Text (1924; repr. with corr., 1928; repr., 1975).
17
M. Bowra (Sophoclean Tragedy [Oxford, 1944] 217)
G. H. Gellie (Sophocles: A Reading [Melbourne, 1972] 107)
"Electra: A Defense of Sophocles," CR 41 [1927] 4
18
Segal (n. 13: 265)
19
W. Beare, "Sophocles, Electra 11.17-19" CR 41 (1927) 111-12
C. Segal (n. 5: 492ff.)
20
Karl Reinhardt, who is eloquent on the innovation of Sophokles' writing here: "It is the way in which the whole breadth of a person's existence forces its way into the language" (n. 13: 143).
21
Richard Seaford, in his article "The Destruction of Limits in Sophokles' Elektra" (CQ 35 (1985) 315-23)
"The absolute, unrestrained kakotas of her enemies must produce in Elektra misery which is absolute and unrestrained and lamentation without end" (p. 320)
23
Woodard (nn. 3, 4)
24
C. P. Gardiner's chapter on Elektra in The Sophoklean Chorus (Iowa City, 1987)
25
Burton (n. 11: 195)
26
Reinhardt (n. 13) 142
27
Elam (n. 8: 138ff.)
28
"Sophocles and the Polis," Fondation Hardt, Entretiens 29 [Geneva, 1983] 8
30
David Seale, Vision and Stagecraft in Sophocles (Chicago, 1980) 56-80
31
Od. 1.311-12.
32
Jebb's note (pp. 66-67)
Sophocles, the Plays and Fragments, Part VI: The Electra (Oxford, 1924; repr. Amsterdam, 1962)
33
Woodard I (n. 3) 182
J. H. Kells's interpretation (Sophocles, Electra [Cambridge, 1973] 117)
W. Nestle ("Sophokles und die Sophistik," CPh 5 [1910] 154)
35
Blundell (n. 1)
the talio (pp. 161-72).
36
"the whole scene ultimately turns not so much on questions of substantive justice as on an examination of the debating process and of the use of speech as a mode of action" (I [n. 3] 183)
"the dramatic effect of this scene intensifies our unre- solved conflict about the virtue and nobility of Elektra and of her world of logos" (p. 186).
Winnington-Ingram (n. 2: 220-23)
37
Language and Thought in Sophocles [London, 1968] 158
Kells (n. 33: 122-23)
38
Blundell (n. 1: 162)
39
Jebb, Attic Orators 2 (New York, 1962) 284
40
Blundell (n. 1: 172)
41
"On Sophocles' Elektra" (C&M 27 [1966] 79-98)
C&M 25 [1964] 8-32
Arthur Adkins (Merit and Responsibility: A Study in Greek Values [Oxford, 1960] 156)
Blundell (n. 1) 166-67
42
Bowra (n. 17: 238)
43
"In these lines we have the crux of the whole ethical situation of the play: if retributive killing is wrong (dike in that sense), then Electra's and Orestes' killing of their mother is going to be just as wrong as was Clytaemnestra's killing of Agamemnon. Electra condemns herself out of her own mouth" (n. 33: 128; italics original)
G. Perrotta, Sofocle (Messina, 1935) 310
Gellie (n. 17) 114-15
Winnington-Ingram (n. 2) 221.
44
"The contents of the words amount to: 'you are setting up a sham pretext: be careful'" (The Plays of Sophocles; Commentaries V: The Electra [Leiden, 1974] 86).
46
Winnington-Ingram (n. 2: 220 n. 13)
47
'And indeed I regard you as being (in all things) as much a mistress as a mother' " (n. 32: 87)
48
Johansen (n. 41)
49
Reinhardt (n. 13)
"Thus in her prayer conceal- ment and revelation, fear and hope, appearance and reality, confession and evil intent are all at war with one another; her very attempt at concealment reveals her as a creature who is falsely ambiva- lent, who hides her own nature from herself, a creature who has become corrupt" (p. 150)
50
Schein (n. 13: 73)
53
Kells (n. 33: 139)
Segal (n. 5: 498)
54
G. M. Kirkwood, "Two Structural Features of Sophocles' Electra," TAPhA 73 (1942) 85-95.
55
Aeschylus' Choephoroi 1021, Persai 225.
56
Kamerbeek (n. 44) 130
Segal (n. 13) 284.
57
Kamerbeek (n. 44)
60
"impossible for us to be really moved by her sorrow at the news of Orestes' death, for the news is false and her sorrow comes to seem false, worked up" (n. 10: 570)
"Sophocles: Electra, Doom or Triumph?" G&R 25 [1978] 118
61
Bowra (n. 10) 249
Segal (n. 5) 514
Woodard I (n. 3) 191-92
Winnington-Ingram (n. 2: 229)
62
J. H. Kells, "Sophocles, Electra 1243-57" CR, n.s., 16 (1966) 259.
63
Aeschylus' Choephoroi 900-903
64
Woodard I (n. 3) 195.
65
Segal (n. 5) passim.
66
Minadeo (n. 13: 133)
Aeschylus's Agamemnon (1343-45)
67
Seale (n. 30)
69
Bowra (n. 17: 260)
70
Minadeo (n. 13: 139ff.)
71
Segal (n. 5: 535)
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