[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
F. S. Kleiner and S. W. Noe, The Early Cistophoric Coinage, NS no. 14 (New York, 1977), 10.
2
H. Seyrig, "Monnaies héllenistiques, V: Questions cistophoriques," RN 6.5 (1963) 24 n. 1
Kleiner and Noe (see n. 1: 18 n. 58) and G. Le Rider, "La politique monétaire du royaume de Pergame après 188," JS (1989) 164-69, 180 n. 77.
3
A. Giovannini, Rome et la circulation monétaire en Grèce au IIe siècle av. J. C. (Basel, 1978) 15
"La circulation monétaire en Grèce sous le protectorat de Rome," AIIN 29 (1982) 171 n. 18
R. E. Allen, The Attalid Kingdom: A Constitutional History (Oxford, 1983) 112-13, esp. n. 142.
4
F. S. Kleiner, "The Alexander Tetradrachms of Pergamum and Rhodes," ANSMN 17 (1971) 118-25
Polyb. 4.46.1-6, 47.1-7, 48.1- 2
Liv. 27.30.4-5, 30.10
App. Maced. 3.1.
Allen (above, n. 3: 37) and R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age (Ithaca, 1984) 95-96.
5
U. Westermark, Das Bildnis des Philetairos von Pergamon (Stockholm, 1961).
6
Kleiner and Noe, consult F. Imhoof-Blumer, Die Münzen der Dynastie von Pergamon (Berlin, 1884)
E. S. G. Robinson, "Cistophori in the Name of King Eumenes," NC 6.14 (1954) 1-7.
D. Kienast, "Die Cistophoren," JNG 11 (1981) 159-62, with bibliography on 163-83
L. Robert, Villes d'Asie Mineure, 2d ed. (Paris, 1962), 252-61.
7
Kleiner and Noe (see n. 1) 17.
8
Ibid. 15-16
H. Nicolet-Pierre, "Monnaies de Pergame," in Numismatic Studies in Memory of C. M. Kraay and O. Mørkholm, ed.
G. K. Jenkins, G. Le Rider, N. Waggoner, and U. Westermark (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1989), 212.
Le Rider (above, n. 2: 169-72) and R. Bauslaugh, "Cistophoric Countermarks and the Monetary Policy of Eumenes II," NC 150 (1990) 60-61.
C. Boehringer, Zur Chronologie mittelhellenistischer Münzserien 220-160 v.Chr. (Berlin, 1972) 41-45
"Hellenistischer Münz- schatz aus Trapezunt, 1970" SNR 54 (1975) 58-59
9
Kleiner and Noe (see n. 1) 16
Le Rider (see n. 2) 163-65.
M. Austin The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest: A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation (Cambridge, 1981) no. 238 (258 B.C.)
C. Préaux, L'économie royale des Lagides (Brussels, 1939) 271-73.
IGCH no. 237 (Larissa, Thessaly, ca. 165 B.C.).
cistophori of 133-39 B.C.
F. S. Kleiner, "The Giresun Hoard," ANSMN 19 (1974) 3-25 (Giresun, Pontus, ca. 77 B.C.), IGCH no. 352 = RRCH no. 374 (Hierapytna, Crete, ca. 42 B.C.), IGCH no. 1746 = RRCH no. 455 (Artaxata, Armenia, ca. 25 B.C.)
L. Robert, Études de numismatique grecque (Paris, 1951) 167.
Ad Att. 2.6.2, Ad Quint. 2.16.4
Ad Quint. 1.3.7
J. Andreau, La vie financière dans le monde romain (Rome, 1987) 509-10.
O. Mørkholm, "Some Reflections on the Produc- tion and Use of Coinage in Ancient Greece," Historia 31 (1982) 297-98, 301-2
G. Le Rider, "À propos d'un passage de phoros de Xénophon: La question du change des monnaies incuses d'Italie du Sud," in Jenkins et al. (see n. 8) 160-61.
D. R. Walker, The Metrology of Roman Silver Coinage 1, BAR Int. Ser. 5 (Oxford, 1976), 33-36, 122-23, and 2
BAR Int. Ser. 22 (Oxford, 1977), 69-70
10
Seyrig (above, n. 2) 24, and contrast Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1) 15-16.
11
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1) 17, 28-29
Le Rider (above, n. 2) 172-75.
12
E. S. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome 1 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1984) 573-78
contra Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1) 16-17.
13
O. Mørkholm, "Some Reflections on the Early Cistophoric Coinage," ANSMN 24 (1979) 49
Eumenes II and Ariarathes IV ca. 168-166 B.C. rather than ca. 160-150 B.C.
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1) 81.
O. Mørkholm, Early Hellenistic Coinage (Cambridge, 1991), 171-73
14
F. Kleiner, "Further Reflections on the Early Cistophoric Coinage," ANSMN 25 (1980) 47.
15
P. Kinns, "Asia Minor," in The Coinage of the Roman World in the Late Republic: Proceedings of a Colloquium Held at the British Museum in September 1985, ed.
A. M. Burnett and M. H. Crawford, BAR Int. Ser. 326 (Oxford, 1987), 105-6
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 24.
Le Rider (above, n. 2: 169)
M. J. Price, "The Larissa 1968 Hoard (IGCH 237)," in Jenkins et al. (above, n. 8: 232)
W. Szaivert, "Stephanephoren und Kistophoren: Die mittelhellenistiche Grosssilberprägung und die römische Ostpolitik in der Ägais," LNV 2 (1982) 79-82, arguing 168 B.C.
T. Fischer, "Tetradrachmen und Kistophor: Ein Diskussions- beitrag zur Auswertung antiker Münzschaftzund und Geldgeschichte in mittelhellenisticher Zeit," in Actes du 8e congrès international numismatique, New York-Washington Septembre 1983, ed.
H. Cahn and G. Le Rider (Paris, 1976), 62-66, for ca. 160 B.C.
Nicolet-Pierre (above, n. 8: 212) for 159 B.C.
16
S. Noe, The Coinage of Metapontum, rev.
A. Johnston (New York, 1981) 104.
17
J. P. C. Kent, "Interpreting Coin Finds," in Coins and the Archaeologist, ed.
P. Casey and R. Reece, BAR Int. Ser. 4 (Oxford, 1979), 188-89
R. Reece, "Coinage and Currency," in The Roman West in the Third Century: Contributions from Archaeology and History, ed. A. King and M. Henig, BAR Int. Ser. 109 (Oxford, 1981), 81-86.
18
App. BC 4.73, 81-82
Plut. Pomp. 11.3-4
Philostr. VA 6.39
Artemidorus, Oneirokritikon 2.59
19
Kent (above, n. 17) 185-86.
20
N. Olçay and H. Seyrig, Le trésor de Mektepini en Phrygie (Paris, 1965) 31 = IGCH no. 1410
W. Schwabacker, Gnomon 39 (1967) 423-24.
21
O. Mørkholm, "The Era of the Pamphylian Alexanders," ANSMN 23 (1978) 69-75
H. Seyrig. "Monnaies hellénistiques, VIII: Pergé," RN 6.5 (1963) 41-42.
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 52-59)
T. Fischer, "Zur Ara der posthumen Alexander- Tetradrachmen pamphylischer Gemeinden," Münzen und Medalliensammler Berichte 125 (Nov. 1981) 1457-58
22
Contra Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 50-51), suggesting ca. 200 B.C.
23
Coin Hoards 2 (1976) no. 81, ca. 190 B.C.
24
C. Carcassonne and A. Davesne, "Le trésor de Gülnar: Considerations sur le rhythme de la production monétaire au IIIe siècle av. J.-C.," in Rythmes de la production monetaire, de l'antiquité à nos jours: Actes du colloque international organisé à Paris du 10 au 12 janvier 1986, ed.
G. Depeyrot, T. Hackens, and G. Moucharte (Louvain-al-Neuve, 1987), 21-29
CRAI (1981) 356-70.
25
Mørkholm (above, n. 13: 49)
Boehringer (above, n. 8: SNR 54 [1975] 47 nos. 97-98, pl. 7).
26
Le Rider (above, n. 2: 169-72)
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 60-61)
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 41-45)
27
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 39-47).
R. Mowat, "Trois contremarques inédites sur des tetradrachmes de Side," in Corolla Numismatica: Numismatic Studies in Honour of Barclay V. Head, ed. G. F. Hill et al. (London, 1906) 195-96.
28
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 41-46)
29
W. Leschhorn, "Ein Schatzfund sidetischer Münzen,"
P. R. Franke, W. Leschhorn, B. Müller, and J. Nollé Side: Münzprägung, Inschriften und Geschichte einer antiken Stadt in der Türkei (Saarbrucken, 1988) 23, 38-42.
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 54-56.
30
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 45-46)
Mowat (above, n. 27: 190-92)
Robert (above, n. 6) 43-50, 252-56.
P. M. Fraser and G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands (Oxford, 1954) 102-5.
H. A. Troxell, The Coinage of the Lycian League, NNM no. 162 (New York, 1982), 87
H. von Aulock, "Zur Silberpragung des karischen Stratonikeia," JNG 17 (1967) 7-9.
Mowat 200 no. 15
Bauslaugh, 41, 48.
Mowat 199-200 no. 10
Bauslaugh, 48 n. 12
Hill, BMCLycia lxxxiii-lxxxiv.
Mørkholm (above, n. 13: 53-58)
Strabo 13.1.14
SNGLewis 829
31
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 11-12.
32
ibid. 48
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1: 100-101) for the last as a mint rather than the name of Korrhagus, son of Aristomachus, a stratēgos in Attalid service ca. 190-170 B.C.
contra Seyrig (above, n. 2) 29-31
Allen (above, n. 3) 114.
33
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 45-46 and pl. 6.2 = ANS (cistophoric countermark of uncertain city overstruck by Seleucid anchor)
Franke et al. (above, n. 29: 40)
H. Seyrig, "Monnaies contremarquées en Syrie," Syria 35 (1958) 187-97
idem, Trésors du Levant anciens et nouveaux 2, Trésors monétaires séleucides (Paris, 1973) 36, 55, 69.
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 21-22
G. Le Rider, "Contremarques et surfrappes dans l'antiquité grecque," in Numismatique antique: Problèmes et methodes. Éudes d'archéologie classique 4, ed.
J.- M. Dentzer, P. Gautier, and T. Hackens (Nancy, 1975), 41-44
Mørkholm (above, n. 21) 72-73.
34
Franke et al. (above, n. 29: 38-42)
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1: 110 n. 5) or 133-129 B.C.
J. P. Adams, "Aristonikos and the Cistophori," Historia 29 (1980) 306-7.
35
IGCH no. 1453
Sidetan Athena/Nike (nos. 17-21, of which 18-21 are late issues in the name of Cleuchares).
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1) 108-11
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 183-85
Trapezus hoard (ca. 150-145 B.C.)
Boehringer (above, n. 8: SNR 54 [1975] 37-64).
36
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1) 107-8.
F. S. Kleiner, "Hoard Evidence and the Late Cistophori of Pergamum," ANSMN 23 (1978) 77-105
37
N. Waggoner, "The Propontis Hoard (IGCH 888)," RN 6.21 (1979) 41-43
38
Ibid. 24-25, and nos. 93, 93a
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 64.
Aspendus (year 22 = 199/8 B.C.) in G. Le Rider, PAC IV, p. 40 = S. P. Noe, "Countermarked and Overstruck Greek Coins at The American Numismatic Society," ANSMN 6 (1954) 86.
39
Waggoner (above, n. 37) 26 and nos. 54-56.
B. Deppert-Lippitz, Die Münzprä- gung Milets vom vierten bis ersten Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Frankfurt, 1984)
Persic and Attic standard in Period V (ca. 205-195 B.C.) and Period VI (ca. 175-86/5 B.C.)
P. Kinns, NC 146 (1986) 257-59.
Period V (ca. 205-195 B.C.)
Deppert-Lippitz 184-85
Epikrates (nos. 654, 735-36)
Molossos (nos. 729-31, 732-33)
ca. 195-175 B.C.
40
Waggoner (above, n. 37: 24-25)
J. H. Oakley, "The Autonomous Wreathed Tetradrachms of Kyme," ANSMN 27 (1982) 18.
O. Mørkholm, "Chronology and Meaning of the Wreathed Coinages of the Early Second Century B.C.," NAC9 (1980) 145-46
U. Westermark, "The Portrait Coin of Eumenes II of Pergamum," in Lagom: Festschrift für Peter Berghaus zum 60. Geburtstag an 20 November 1979, ed.
T. Fischer and P. Ilisch (Münster, 1981), 19-23
R. Bauslaugh, "The Unique Portrait Tetradrachma of Eumenes II," ANSMN 27 (1982) 39-51.
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 14-19, 31-39)
Giovannini (above, n. 3: 16-21, 81-100).
41
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 44 (Paris), 45 (= Mowat [above, n. 27] 205 no. 60, pl. X.17). for lyre flanked by A/N
42
R. H. J. Ashton, "Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms and the Beginnings of the Lycian League Coinage," NC 147 (1987) 16, 20
contra Troxell (above, n. 30: 68-69)
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 43 (= Mowat [above, n. 27] 204-5 no. 58), 44 (Berlin).
Mowat 204-5
Mowat 202 no. 31
Troxell (68-69)
43
R. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside of Egypt (Leiden, 1976) 111-12, 197.
44
H. Seyrig, "Monnaies hellénistiques, VIII: Pergé IX: As- pendos; X: Side," RN 6.5 (1963) 38-64
G. Le Rider, "Les tetradrachmes pamphyliens de la fin du IIIe siècle et du début du IIe siècle avant notre ère," RN 6.14 (1972), 253-59.
C. Heipp, "Untersuchungen zu den hellenistichen Münzen der lykischen Stadt von Phaselis" (M.A. thesis, Saarbrücken, 1987)
Boehringer, Zur Chrono- logie (above, n. 8: 52-68).
J. P. Barron, The Silver Coins of Samos (London, 1966) 146-54
45
Heipp (see n. 44) 63-65.
46
Seyrig (above, n. 44) pl. VI.6; S. Altan, "Die in Side geprägten Münzen mit Alexandertypen," Belleten 31.124 (Oct. 1967) 484-511.
Franke et al. (above, n. 29: 23-42)
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 55-56)
Seyrig (above, n. 44: 59-60)
IGCH 1406
Le Rider (above, n. 44: 256-57)
Seyrig 61
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 63-64).
47
Coin Hoards 5 (1977) no. 43 = 6 (1981) no. 34; the latest reported pieces are of Seleucus IV (187-176 B.C.).
Le Rider (above, n. 2) 177 n. 64.
48
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 66-68)
G. Le Rider, "Les alexandres d'argent en Asie Mineure et dans l'Orient séleucide au IIIe siècle av. J.-C. (c. 275-c. 225): remarques sur le systeme monétaire des Séleucides et des Ptolémées," JS (1986) 30-31.
49
Polyb. 21.45.1-10
Liv. 37.55.2-6, 56.2-7; 38.39.7-16
Polyb. 32.8.3
E. Bickermann, "Notes sur Polybe," REG 50 (1937) 217- 39
H. Seyrig, "Monnaies hellénistiques: La traité d'Apamée et le monnayage des villes d'Asie," RN 6.5 (1963) 19-22
Allen (above, n. 3) 109-11.
50
Heipp (above, n. 44: 71-73)
Liv. 37.23.1
Polyb. 24.15,25.4-5, 30.5, 31
Liv. 41.6, 25; 42.14; 44.15
Troxell (above, n. 30) 67-69.
51
Polyb. 21.21.1-5
Liv. 38.37.9.
52
Polyb. 21.35.4-5.
K. W. Harl, Civic Coins and Civic Politics in the Roman East, 180-275 A.D. (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1987) 81-82.
53
Polyb. 21.45.11
Liv. 39.22.9
Liv. 38.38.4
App. Mithr. 62.
App. Lib. 123
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 57).
54
Polyb. 21.43.19
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 57-58.
55
Polyb. 21.17.6
56
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 41-47)
57
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 50-51)
M. Thompson, The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens (New York, 1958) 81 and no. 184b, dated to ca. 155 B.C.
D. M. Lewis, "The Chronology of the Athenian New Style Coinage," NC 7.2 (1962) 275-300.
Le Rider, PAC IV, pp. 40- 41
Noe (above, n. 38) 86.
58
Le Rider (above, n. 44) 258
Allen (above, n. 3) 113
Gruen (above, n. 12) 2.645- 47.
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie [above, n. 8: 68-69]
M. Rostovtzeff, "Some Remarks on the Monetary and Commercial Policy of the Seleucids and Attalids," in Anatolian Studies Presented to William M. Ramsay ed.
W. M. Calder and J. Keil (Manchester, 1939) 359-90
O. Mørkholm. Antiochus IV of Syria (Gyldendal, 1966) 51-63.
N. J. Jones, "The Autonomous Wreathed Tetradrachms of Magnesia-on-Maeander," ANSMN 24 (1979) 74-75
J. H. Oakley, "The Autono- mous Wreathed Tetradrachms of Kyme, Aeolis," ANSMN 27 (1982) 12-13
K. S. Sacks, "The Wreathed Coins of Aeolian Myrina," ANSMN 30 (1985) 20-23.
59
Polyb. 21.32.8,42.19
Diod. 28.3, 29.15
Str. 16.1.18 (744)
II Macc. 3
Mørkholm (above, n. 58) 22, 75-76.
60
Seyrig, Trésors (above, n. 33) 35-36
Le Rider, PAC IV, pp. 42-44.
61
Waggoner (above, n. 37) 26
Troxell (above, n. 30) 76.
62
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 63-64)
Troxell (above, n. 30: 76 n. 135)
63
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 63-64.
64
C. J. Howgego, Greek Imperial Countermarks, Royal Numismatic Society, no. 17 (London, 1985), 1-16
65
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1) 86.
66
ibid. 22
Nicolet-Pierre (above, n. 8) 212.
Le Rider (above, n. 2) 169-75
Bauslaugh (above, n.8) 60-61
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8: 41-45).
67
Polyb. 21.45.9-10
K. Rigsby, "The Era of the Province of Asia," Phoenix 33 (1979) 39-47.
68
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1: 15-17)
69
Kleiner (above, n. 4) 118-26.
Nicolet-Pierre (above, n. 8: 203-16)
Boehringer, (above, n. 8: 11-14, 40-44)
Bauslaugh (above, n. 40: 39-51)
Le Rider (above, n. 2: 174-75)
70
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8) 51.
O. Mørkholm, Studies in the Coinage of Antiochus IV (Copenhagen, 1963) 13-24
Historia 31 (above, n. 9) 302-5
71
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 52; cf. 58)
Waggoner (above, n. 37) 8-9 nos. 79, 79a (= Heipp [above, n. 44] no. 169), 28 no. 16
72
App. Syr. 56
Seyrig, Trésors (above, n. 33) 58.
Mowat (above, n. 27: 203-5 nos. 48-50, 63-64)
Seyrig, "Monnaies" (above, n. 33) 187-97, Trésors 36, 55, 69
R. Bauslaugh, "The Posthumous Alexander Coinage of Chios," ANSMN 24 (1979) 15.
Boehringer, Zur Chronologie (above, n. 8) 21-22
Le Rider, PAC IV, p. 49.
73
Heipp (above, n. 44) 77-78.
74
esp. Liv. 32.16.10 (198 B.C.)
Liv. 31.45.7
Allen (above, n. 3) 74-75.
198 B.C. (Liv. 32.16.6) and in 191 B.C. (Liv. 36.43.12)
Liv. 37.23.5
Berthold (above, n. 4) 42-43.
75
Liv. 31.46.3
Polyb. 21.3b.1-2
Liv. 37.39.9-10
Liv. 38.12.8 and 13.3.
Liv. 37.30.1-2
Liv. 37.26.11
Liv. 37.30.6-7
76
Liv. 37.59.3-6
77
Liv. 22.52.2, 54.2, 58.4
Liv. 33.27.3
Liv. 8.11.16 and 21.41.6.
M. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage 2 (Cambridge, 1973) 630.
78
Liv. 27.10.11-13.
R. Thomsen, Early Roman Coinage 3 (Copenhagen, 1961) 282-83
Crawford (above, n. 77) 691.
ibid. 1.154-56 nos. 44/2-4 and 50/1
79
Liv. 41.13.6-7, 45.43.4
Crawford (above, n. 77) 629-31.
80
Liv. 34.10.4, 6-7, 46.2; 40.43.5.
R. Knapp, "The Date and Purpose of Iberian Denarii," NC 7.17 (1977) 1-18, and "Spain," in The Coinage of the Roman World in the Late Republic (Oxford, 1987) 22-24
M. H. Crawford, Coinage and Money under the Roman Republic: Italy and the Mediterranean Economy (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1985) 95.
81
D. G. Sellwood, "Some Experiments in Greek Minting Technique," NC 7.3 (1963) 217-31
P. Kinns, "The Amphictyonic Coinage Reconsidered," NC 143 (1983) 1-22.
82
Bauslaugh (above, n. 8: 61-62)
Le Rider (above, n. 2: 183)
IGCH 352 = RRCH 374
I. Shatzman, "The Roman General's Authority over Booty," Historia 21 (1972) 177-205.
83
Liv. 37.18
App. Syr. 26
Allen (above, n. 3) 113.
84
Polyb. 21.43.19, confirmed in IG II/III2 1013 = Epigraphica I 14
Craw- ford (above, n. 77) 594-95.
85
Plin. NH 33.55-56
Oros. 6.15.5
RRCH 357
P. Spufford, Money and Its Use in Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1988) 209-14.
86
Liv. 32.1.1-2
87
Polyb. 21.30.1-3
Liv. 38.9.9.
88
Polyb. 21.32.8-9.
89
Liv. 38.11.8-9.
90
R. A. de Laix, "The Silver Coinage of the Aetolian League," CSCA 6 (1973) 47-75
J. Scholten, "Aetolian Foreign Relations During the Era of Expansion, ca. 300-217 B.C." (diss., California, Berkeley, 1987) 455-89.
L. A. Losada, "The Aetolian Indemnity of 189 B.C. and the Agrinion Hoard," Phoenix 19 (1965) 129-33.
91
Liv. 39.5.14-17.
Apamea (Liv. 38.37.9; cf. 13-14)
Thrace (Liv. 38.40.7: plaustra cum pecunia publica erant pretiosiaque alia praemia)
Liv. 39.1-2, 5
T. Quinctius Flamininus (Liv. 34.52.4-11)
L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (Liv. 37.59.3-6).
92
Liv. 34.52.6
Thomsen (above, n. 78) 2.139-41
Crawford (above, n. 77) 28 n. 4.
Kleiner and Noe (above, n. 1) 15-16.
93
Polyb. 18.43.5-13
Liv. 33.27.10-29.12.
94
Liv. 30.7.1-3.
95
Knapp, "Date" (above, n. 80) 16-18.
Crawford (above, n. 80: 90-93)
Crawford (above, n. 77) 594-95
H. Zehnacker, "Monnaies de compte et prix à Rome au IIe siècle avant notre ère," in Les dévaluations à Rome: Èpoque republicaine et impériale 2 (Rome, 1980) 40-41.
Liv. 39.7.3-4
96
Polyb. 25.2
Gruen (above, n. 12) 2.554.
97
Polyb. 29.8.2
98
Numismatic Chronicle 150 (1990).
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