[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
K. Raaflaub, "Grundzüge, Ziele und Ideen der Opposition gegen die Kaiser im 1. Jh. n. Chr.: Versuch einer Standorthestimmung," in Entretiens 33 (1987) 1-64.
Ann. 15.49.3
M. Griffin, Nero: The End of A Dynasty (New Haven, 1984) 166-77
B. Warmington, Nero: Reality and Legend (New York, 1969) 142-54.
2
E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1974).
R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (Oxford, 1939).
L. Ross Taylor, Party Politics in the Age of Caesar [Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1949] 162-82
Tacitus, Ann. 1.1.
3
P. White, "Julius Caesar in Augustan Rome," Phoenix 42 (1988) 334-56
P. Jal, La guerre civile à Rome: Étude littéraire et morale (Paris, 1963)
W. Alexander, "Julius Caesar in the Pages of Seneca the Philosopher," Transac- tions of the Royal Society of Canada 35 (1941) 15-18
W. Alexander, "Cato of Utica in the Pages of Seneca the Philosopher," TRSC 40 (1946) 59-74.
P. Grenade, "Le mythe de Pompée et les Pompéiens sous les Césars," REA 52 (1950) 28-63
R. Wolverton, "Speculum Caesaris," The James Sprunt Studies 46 (1964) 82-90
A. Dyroff, "Caesars Anticato und Ciceros Cato," RhM 63 (1908) 587-604
4
White (above, n. 3: 355)
S. Price, Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) esp. 239-48
L. R. Taylor, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor, APA Monograph 1 (Middletown, CT 1931) 78-141.
5
W. Richter, "Römische Zeitge- schichte und innere Emigration," Gymnasium 68 (1961) 286-315, esp. 293ff.
Syme (above, n. 2) 317ff.
F. Klingner, "Tacitus und die Geschichts- schreiber des 1. Jahrhunderts," MH 15 (1958) 194-206, esp. 196ff.
P. Pecchiura, La figura di Catone uticense nella letteratura latina (Turin, 1965).
6
R. MacMullen, Enemies of the Roman Order (Cambridge, Mass., 1975), esp. chaps. 1 and 2
C. Wirszubski, Libertas as a Political Idea at Rome during the Late Republic and Early Principate (Cambridge, 1950), esp. chap. 5
J. M. C. Toynbee, "Dictators and Philosophers in the First Century A.D.," G&R 13 (1944) 43-58
Cassius, et al. at Ann. 4.34.
7
MacMullen, (above, n. 6) 19
T. Adam, Clementia Principis (Stuttgart, 1970) 63-68
Pecchiura (above, n. 5) 47-51
Wirszubski (above, n. 6) 127-29.
Seneca, De Tranq. 7.5
Petronius 119
Pliny, Ep. 4.27.
Siluae 1.1.27-28
E. Wistrand, "The Stoic Opposition to the Principate" StudClas 18 (1979) 93-101
8
Suasoriae 6.2
P. Brunt, "Stoicism and the Principate," PBSR 43 (1975) 7-35, for Cato 11 and 15.
9
A. Erskine, The Hellenistic Stoa: Political Thought and Action (Ithaca, 1990)
B. Shaw, "The Divine Economy: Stoicism as Ideology," Latomus 44 (1985) 16-54
De Off. 2.3.12
Adam (above, n. 7) 63-81
F. Devine, "Stoicism on the Best Regime," JHI 31 (1970) 323-36
H. Baldry, "Zeno's Ideal State," JHI 79 (1959) 3-15
A. Sizoo, "Paetus Thrasea et le stoicisme," REL 4 (1926) 229-37
REL 5 (1927) 41-52
C. Starr, Jr., "Epictetus and the Tyrant," CPh 44 (1949) 20-29.
10
Plato, Rep. 543-76
Aristotle, Pol. 1337a22
SVF 1.371
M. Reesor, The Political Theory of the Old and Middle Stoa (New York, 1951) 12ff.
11
SVF 1.197
Reesor (above, n. 10) 13 n. 8.
SVF 3.178
Hierocles 1.38
Seneca, Ep. 121.1
Cicero, De Fin. 3
T. Engberg-Pedersen, "Discovering the Good: Oikeiosis and Kathekonta in Stoic Ethics," in M. Schofield and S. Striker, eds., The Norms of Nature: Studies in Hellenistic Ethics (Cambridge, 1986) 145-83
B. Inwood, Ethics and Human Action in Early Stoicism (Oxford, 1985)
M. Forschner, Die stoische Ethik (Stuttgart, 1981) 142-59
J. Rist, "Zeno and Stoic Consistency," Phronesis 22 (1977) 161-74
F. Sandbach, The Stoics (London, 1975) 31-36
S. Pem- broke, "Oikeiosis," in A. Long, ed., Problems in Stoicism (London, 1971) 115-49.
G. Lesses, "Virtue and the Goods of Fortune in Stoic Moral Theory," Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 7 (1989) 95-127
I. Kidd, "Stoic Intermediates and the End for Man," in Long, op. cit.
M. Reesor, "The Indifferents in the Old and Middle Stoa," TAPA 82 (1957) 63-82.
12
SVF 1.271
Antigonus SVF 1.3
Persaeus D.L. 7.7-9.
13
SVF 1.441, 442, 460
Reesor (above, n. 10) 14-15.
Erskine, (above, n. 9) 84-90
Persaeus, 123-49 for the "Spartan Revolution."
14
SVF 1.622-23
Reesor (above, n. 10) 15ff.
15
Plutarch, Agis 7, 13.3
Cl. 11.1
Reesor (above, n. 10) 17-19.
16
Reesor (above, n. 10: 17-19)
Plutarch's De Fortuna Alexandri
Jacoby, FGrHist 241 T 10
M. Pohlenz, Die Stoa2 [Göttigen, 1959] 1.136).
J. Rufus Fears, "The Stoic View of the Career and Character of Alexander the Great," Philologus 118 (1974) 113-30
P. Brunt, "From Epictetus to Arrian," Athenaeum, n.s., 55 (1977) 19-48
W. W. Tarn, Alexander the Great (Cambridge, 1948) 1.80-82, 2 app. 16
idem, "Alexander, Cynics and Stoics," AJP 60 (1939) 51-56
J. Stroux, "Die stoische Beurteilung des Alexander d. Gr.," Philologus 88 (1933) 222-43.
17
Reesor (above, n. 10) 36-37
Panaetius 27-35
Posidonius 38-58.
I. Kidd, Posidonius: The Commentary (Cambridge, 1988)
L. Edelstein and I. Kidd, Posidonius: The Fragments (Cambridge, 1972).
M. Griffin, Seneca: A Philosopher in Politics (Oxford, 1976) 315-66.
18
C. Nicolet, "L'inspiration de Tiberius Gracchus," REA 67 (1965) 142-58
J. Becker, "The Influence of Roman Stoicism upon the Gracchi's Economic Land Reforms," PP 19 (1964) 125-34
D. Dudley, "Blossius of Cumae," JRS 31 (1941) 92-99
A. Bernstein, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus: Tradition and Apostasy (Ithaca, 1978)
H. Jocelyn, "The Ruling Class of the Roman Republic and Greek Philosophers," BRL 59 (1977) 323-66
E. Badian, "Tiberius Gracchus and the Beginning of the Roman Revolu- tion," ANRW 1.1 (Berlin, 1972) 668-731
H. Strasburger, "Poseidonios on Problems of the Roman Empire," JRS 55 (1965) 40-53, p. 45 n. 52
Erskine (above, n. 9) 150- 80
M. Griffin, "Philosophy, Politics, and Politicians at Rome," in M. Griffin and J. Barnes, eds., Philosophia Togata (Oxford, 1989) 1-37
E. Rawson, "Roman Rulers and the Philosophic Adviser," in Griffin and Barnes, op. cit. 233-57
I. Hadot, "Tradition stoïcienne et idées politiques au temps des Gracques," REL 48 (1970) 133-79.
19
Strasburger (above, n. 18: 51)
E. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1984) 351-56.
20
Zeno in his [Unrepresented Characters]
Chrysippus in his [Unrepresented Characters]
D.L. 7.131
SVF 3.700
Griffin (above, n. 17) 202-21.
Dio Chrysostom, On Kingship 3.50
J. Fears, "Cyrus as a Stoic Exemplum of the Just King," AJP 95 (1974) 265-67.
21
Adam (above, n. 7) 64f.
Sizoo (above, n. 9) 230.
22
A. Kargl, Die Lehre der Stoiker vom Staat (Erlangen, 1913) 43.
23
Cicero, De Rep. 1.34
Adam (above, n. 7) 65-66
Sizoo (above, n. 9) 231-32.
Cicero, De Rep. 1.34, 69
24
Adam (above, n. 7: 65)
Griffin (above, n. 17: 202 n. 1
eadem [above, n. 1: 172])
n. 31.
25
Griffin (above, n. 17: 182-201)
eadem, "Seneca on Cato's Politics: Epistle 14.12-13," CQ 18 [1968] 373-75
Seneca in Ep. 14
p. 192 n. 3
De Ben. 2.20.2
Pecchiura (above, n. 5: 69-71)
F. Ahl, Lucan: An Introduction (Ithaca, 1976) 236
26
int. al., Ep. 24.6, 95.69, 104.29.
27
Wirszubski (above, n. 6: 138-43)
Wirszubski, op. cit. 148.
Griffin (above, n. 17: 362-66)
28
J. P. Sullivan, Literature and Politics in the Age of Nero (Ithaca, 1985) 115-52
F. Ahl, "The Rider and the Horse: Politics and Power in Roman Poetry from Horace to Statius," ANRW 2.32.1 (Berlin, 1984) 40-110, esp. 70-77
J. P. Sullivan, "Petronius' Bellum Ciuile and Lucan's Pharsalia: A Political Reconsideration," in Neronia 1977 (Adosa, 1982) 151-55
C. Salemme, "Lucano e la crisi agraria del I secolo dell'impero," BStudLat 4 (1974) 22-33
E. Cizek, L'époque de Néron et ses controverses idélogiques (Leiden, 1972) 169ff.
Griffin (above, n. 1) 155-60
O. Dilke, "Lucan's Political Views and the Caesars," in D. Dudley, Neronians and Flavians: Silver Latin 1 (London, 1972)
N. Deratani, "Der Kampf für Freiheit, Patriotismus und Heldentum im Gedicht Lucans 'über den Bügerkrieg'" (transl. from Russian), in W. Rutz, ed., Lucan, Wege der Forschung 235 (Darmstadt, 1970), 133-48
R. Rogers, "Freedom of Speech in the Empire—Nero," Laudatores Temporis Acti 46 (1964) 73-81
O. Schönberger, "Ein Dichter römischer Freiheit, M. Annaeus Lucanus," Altertum 10 (1964) 26-40
J. Brisset, Les idées politiques de Lucain (Paris, 1964).
29
Dio 66.12.2.
Toynbee (above, n. 6: 53)
D. Dudley (A History of Cynicism from Diogenes to the Sixth Century A.D. [London, 1937] 135ff.)
Wirszubski, (above, n. 6) 147-50
R. Tucker, "The Diverse Fates of Four Fallen Leaders," CB 56 (1980) 56-60
M. Rambaud, "L'opposition de Lucain au Bellum Civile de Cesar," IL 12 (1960) 155-62.
H. Haffter, "Dem schwanken Zünglein lauschend wachte Casar dort," MH 16 (1957) 118-26.
30
Pohlenz's discussion of this line (above, n. 16: 1.285f.).
31
P. Grimal, "Le poete et l'histoire," in Entretiens 15 (1968) 53-117, esp. 98-105
J.-M. Croisille, "Caton et Seneque face au pouvoir: Lucain, Pharsale, 2.234-235; 9.186-217," in Neronia 1977 (Adosa, 1982) 75-82
J. Adatte, "Caton ou l'engagement du sage dans la guerre civile," EL 7 (1965) 232-40
C. Soria "Optimismo y pesimismo en Lucano," in Actas del primer Simposio national de estudio Clássicos, Mayo 1970 (Cuyo 1972) 291-98
Ahl (above, n. 25: 234-39)
M. Lapidge, "Lucan's Imagery of Cosmic Dissolution," Hermes 107 (1979) 344-70 at p. 345 n. 7
C. Martindale, "Lucan's Hercules: Padding or Paradigm? A Note on De bello ciuili 4.589-660," SO 56 (1981) 71-80
C. Saylor, "Curio and Antaeus: The African Episode of Lucan, Pharsalia 4," TAPA 112 (1982) 169-77.
32
Plutarch, Brutus 2
Cicero, Ac. Pr.. 11ff.
Cicero (Tusc. 5.21ff.)
Grimal (above, n. 31: 97ff.)
G. Luck, Der Akademiker Antiochos (Bern, 1953) 45-51
J. Glücker, Antiochus and the Late Academy (Gottingen, 1978) 13-98
J. Dillon, The Middle Platonists (80 B. C. to A.D. 220) (Ithaca, 1977) 53-113
Pohlenz (above, n. 16: 1.248-56)
A. Momigliano, "Epicureans in Revolt," JRS 31 (1941) 151-57.
33
J. Rist, "The Stoic Concept of Detachment," in J. Rist, ed., The Stoics (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1978) 259-72.
Seneca, De Ira 1.16
Plutarch, De Virt. Mor. 9
D. George, "Lucan's Caesar and [Unrepresented Characters] Theory: The Stoic Fool," TAPA 118 (1988) 331-41.
34
SVF 3.431.
Cicero, Tusc. 4.12
SVF 3.438
Cicero, Ac. Pr. 135
Dillon (above, n. 32) 77f.
Luck, (above, n. 32) 48ff., 67ff.
35
SVF 3.548
36
SVF 3.548, 605.
SVF 3.570
SVF 3.567, 572, 600.
SVF 3.453
SVF 3.620
Seneca, De Ira 1.6.1-5
37
SVF 3.557- 66
SVF 3.562
SVF 3.594
SVF 3.548
SVF 3.593
Ac. Pr. 136
38
Luck (above, n. 32) 58ff.
39
Ahl (above, n. 25: 236f.)
40
SVF 3.567ff.
41
SVF 3.38-48
SVF 3.572
SVF 3.49
SVF3.199
SVF3.197
SVF 3.198
42
SVF 3.649
SVF 3.699.
43
SVF 2.299
Epicurus, Ad Herod. 43
Lucretius 5.64-109.
C. Bailey, The Greek Atomists and Epicurus (London, 1928) 361-67
Cicero, Ac. Post. 27ff.
Luck (above, n. 32) 36ff.
Dillon (above n. 32) 83.
Pohlenz (above, n. 16) 1.191-207.
Seneca, De Tran. An. 2.2
Pohlenz 1.205ff.
Grimal (above, n. 32) 100.
Seneca, Ad Marciam 26.5-6
NQ 3.27-29
44
J. Rosner-Siegel, "The Oak and the Lightning: Lucan, Bellum Civile 1.135-157," Athenaeum 61 (1983) 165-77.
45
M. H. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage (Cambridge, 1974) 455-56
E. A. Sydenham, The Coinage of the Roman Republic (London, 1957) p. 57, note to #483; p. 150, #907.
Cicero, Att. 4.18.2-3
M. Clarke, The Noblest Roman (Ithaca, 1981) 10, 15-16.
Quint. Instit. 9.3.95
Sen. Contr. 10.1.8.
46
SVF 3.592
47
G. Kerferd, "What Does the Wise Man Know?" in Rist, ed. (above, n. 33), 125-36
M. Van Straaten, Panétius, sa vie et ses écrits (Amsterdam, 1946) 149f.
I. Kidd, "Stoic Intermediates and the End for Man," in Long (above, n. 11) 150-72, esp. 167.
Cicero, De Fin. 3.23.
Housman in his cryptic note to 2.289
S. Timpanaro, "Note a Lucano," in Letterature comparate: Problemi e metodo. Studi in onore di Ettore Paratore 2 (Bologna, 1981) 603-8
Horace, Odes 3.3.
48
TLL s.v. metus 910.20ff.
Verg. Aen. 7.60
BC 8.804
49
Lapidge (above, n. 31: 355ff.)
Seneca (NQ 3.26ff.)
50
ut Luc. 1.40
52
SVF 3.611
53
SVF 3.629
54
M. Morford, The Poet Lucan (Oxford, 1967) 5-7
55
Caesar's speech at 5.237ff.
E. Fantham, "Caesar and the Mutiny: Lucan's Reshaping of the Historical Tradition in De Bello Ciuili 5.237- 373," CPh 80 (1985) 199-231.
56
Cato's statement on Pompey and Caesar at 2.319ff.
57
Housman's note at 9.238
58
M. von Albrecht, "Der Dichter Lucan und Die epische Tradition," in Entretiens 15 (1968) 269-308
p. 275 n. 2
Iliad 2.87-93.
59
M. Morford, "The Purpose of Lucan's Ninth Book," Latomus 26 (1967) 123-29
G. Voegler, "Das neunte Buch innerhalb der Pharsalia des Lukan und die Frage der Vollendung des Epos" (diss., Frankfurt, 1967).
60
B. Marti, "Cassius Scaeva and Lucan's inventio," in L. Walsh, ed., The Classical Tradition: Literary and Historical Studies in Honor of Harry Caplan (Ithaca, 1966) 239-57.
61
F. Bastet, "Lucain et les arts," Entretiens 15 (1968) 121-58, esp. 131-33
W. Rutz, "Lucan und die Rhetorik," ibid. 235-65, esp. 236-40
Morford (above, n. 54) 13-19
M. Schmidt, "Zur Kritik Neros im zehnten Buch der 'Pharsalia' (Lucan 10,35sq./ 89sq.—P.Oxy. VII 1021,8sqq.)," ZPE 49 (1982) 45-50
E. Fantham (above, n. 55) 126-31.
62
n. 16.
63
n. 11.
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