[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Quomodo historia conscribenda sit, 38-39.
2
Poetics 1451A36.
3
B. E. Perry, The Ancient Romances (Berkeley 1967) esp. 32ff.
4
Perry (supra n. 3) 175.
5
Leicester 1979
6
Cic. Brut. 42
7
N. Robertson, "The Myth of the First Sacred War," CQ N.S.28 (1978) 38-73
R. M. Ogilvie, Early Rome and the Etruscans (Hassocks 1976) 20
8
Paus. 4.6.1-4
Wiseman (supra n. 5) 9-26.
9
Polyb. 2.56.
10
Parthen. 'E[Unrepresented Characters] 15, 25, 31.
11
F. Zimmermann, "Chariton und die Ge- schichte," Sozialökonomische Verhältnisse im alten Orient und im klassischen Altertum (= Tagung der Sektion alte Geschichte der deutschen Historiker-Gesellschaft von 12-17.x.1959 in Altenburg) (Berlin 1961) 329-45.
W. Bartsch's dissertation Der Chariton- Roman und die Historiographie (Leipzig 1934)
12
Athenians: 1.1.1, 1.11.2, 3.4.18, 3.5.3, 3.10.8, 5.8.8, 6.7.10, 7.2.3-4, 7.5.8, 8.2.12, 8.6.2, 8.6.10, 8.6.12, 8.7.2.
Dionysios: 2.9.5, 3.2.13, 3.8.8, 8.5.15, 8.8.11.
13
Habrich's edition of the Babyloniaka, p. 2.
14
E. L. Bowie, "Apollonius of Tyana: Tradition and Reality," ANRW 2.16.2, 1652-99, esp. 1663-67.
Bibl. 109A10-12
Alexander (Bibl. 112A4).
Phot. Bibl. 111A38-40
Patrai (Bibl. 96B11ff.)
15
T. Szepessy in "Die Neudatierung des Heliodoros und die Belagerung von Nisibis," Actes de la XIIe Conférence Internationale d'Etudes Classiques Eirene, Cluj-Napoca, 2-7 Octobre 1972 (Bucharest and Amsterdam 1975) 279-87
"La siège de Nisibe et la chronologie d'Héliodore," Acta Antiqua Acad. Scient. Hung. 24 (1976) 247-76
A. Colonna, "L'assedio di Nisibis del 350 D.C. e la cronologia di Eliodoro Emiseno," Athenaeum N.S. 28 (1950) 79-87
16
Hdt. 1.58, 1.97.2, 1.119.7, 1.131.1, 1.152.2, 1.186.1, 2.149.2, 3.13.4, 3.143.2, 3.146.1, 4.50.2, 4.76.6, 4.167.3, 4.176, 6.64, 7.24.1, 7.133.2, 7.173.4, 7.184.1, 7.185.2, 7.187.2, 7.189.3, 7.220.2, 7.238.2, 7.239.2, 8.30.1, 8.87.3, 9.8.2, 9.18.2
Thuc. 2.18.5, 2.20.1.
18
Hdt. 1.27.2, 1.61.2, 1.70.2, 1.172.1, 1.191.1, 2.125.4, 2.175.5, 2.181.1, 3.30.3, 3.32.1, 3.45.1, 3.87, 5.82.2, 7.55.3, 7.220.1, 7.230, 8.54, 9.3.1, 9.5.2, 9.74.1, 9.91.1, 9.120.4.
19
T. J. Luce, Livy: The Composition of His History (Princeton 1977) 157ff.
20
Tac. Ann. 1.3, 1.9-10, 1.76, 2.42, 3.64, 6.1, 6.23, 14.49, 14.51
I. S. Ryberg, "Tacitus' Art of Innuendo," TAPA 73 (1942) 383-404.
21
E. Rohde in his section on Heliodoros: Der griechische Roman und seine Vorlaufer (3rd ed., ed. W. Schmid, Leipzig 1914) 453/424ff.
22
R. M. Rattenbury and T. W. Lumb in the Bude series (Paris 1935-43).
my forthcoming paper "Noctes Aethiopicae."
23
J. J. Winkler in his paper "The Mendacity of Kalasiris and the Narrative Strategy of Heliodoros' Aithiopika," YCS 27 (1982) 93-158.
24
D. Fehling, Die Quellenangaben bei Herodot (Berlin and New York 1971) 91
Weinrich's Linguistik der Lüge (Heidelberg 1966) 66ff.
25
Winkler (supra n. 23) 00.
26
Ovid's Metamorphoses
Ov. Met. 3.253, 8.522, 9.225, 11.751, 12.34, 15.783, 15.798.
28
R. Th. van der Paardt, "Various Aspects of Narrative Technique in Apuleius' Meta- morphoses, "Aspects of Apuleius' Golden Ass, ed. B. L. Hijmans, Jr., and R. Th. van der Paardt (Groningen 1978) 75-94, esp. 76-79.
29
Heliod. 9.8.2.
30
Heliod. 1.18.3.
E. L. Bowie, "The Novels and the Real World," Erotica Antiqua: Acta of the International Conference on the Ancient Novel, 12-17th July 1976, ed. B. P. Reardon (Bangor 1977) 91-96
H. J. Mason, "Longus and the Topog- raphy of Lesbos," TAPA 109 (1979) 149-63, esp. 150
P. Green is forthcoming in JHS.
35
Ach. Tat. 2.37-38
H. Rommel, Die naturwissenschaftlich-paradoxographischen Exkurse bei Philo- stratos, Heliodoros und Achilleus Tatios (Stuttgart 1923).
36
Hdt. 1.92.1, 1.94.7, 1.130.3, 1.140.3, 4.80.5, 5.62.1.
37
Hdt. 2.45, 2.47, 2.61, 2.65, 2.86, 2.170.
40
W. Capelle, "Zwei Quellen des Heliodor," RhM N.F. 96 (1953) 166-80.
41
A. M. Scarcella, "Les structures socio-économiques du roman de Xenophon d'Ephèse," REG 90 (1977) 249-62
idem, "Realtà e letteratura nel paesaggio sociale ed economico del romanzo di Longo Sofista," Maia 22 (1970) 103-131
idem, "Aspetti del diritto e del costume matrimoniali nel romanzo di Eliodoro," Materiali e Contributi per la Storia della Narrativa Greco-Latina 1 (1976) 59-95
A. Calderini, "La [Unrepresented Characters] matrimoniale nei romanzieri greci e nei papiri," Aegyptus 39 (1959) 29-39.
42
B. P. Reardon, "The Second Sophistic and the Novel," Approaches to the Second Sophistic, ed. G. W. Bowersock (Pennsylvania 1974) 23-29, esp. 29 n. 13.
43
Strabo 17.1.48.
A. Koraes in his commentary on Heliodoros published in Paris in 1804 (Vol. 2, p. 312).
44
Capelle (supra n. 40).
45
Hdt. 2.134-35.
46
[Unrepresented Characters] at 1.16.5
47
Hdt. 4.183
Hanno Periplous 7
Solin. 56.9
48
Heliod. 8.16.5.
49
Hom. Od. 1.22ff.
Strabo 1.2.28.
A. Lesky, "Aithio- pika," Hermes 87 (1959) 27-38
J. Y. Nadeau, "Ethiopians," CQ N.S. 20 (1970) 339-49
idem, "Ethiopians, Again, and Again," Mnemosyne 4th ser. 30 (1977) 75-78
A. Treloar, "Aethiopians," Prudentia 4 (1972) 42-50.
50
Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 6.6ff.
Sidon. Apoll. Epist. 8.3.4
Jerome Epist. 53.1.4
CSEL 54.445), 107.8.3
CSEL 55.229
Luc. Fug. 6ff.
Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 6.16.
Laert. 9.35
Plin. N.H. 25.13
51
Strabo 15.1.49
52
Strabo 17.2.3
Diod. 3.6.
53
Hdt. 2.29
Diod. 3.9
54
Mimnerm. Frag. 12
Lesky (supra n. 49)
Diod. 3.2
U. Monneret de Villard, "Il culto del sole a Meroe," Rassegna di studi etiopici 2 (1942) 107-142
P. L. Shinnie, Meroe: A Civilisation of the Sudan (London 1967) 81ff.
W. Y. Adams, Nubia, Corridor to Africa (London 1977) 327
55
Diod. 3.9
Strabo 17.2.3.
U. Monneret de Villard, "Un santuario di Min-Pan in Nubia," Aegyptus 13 (1933) 42-47.
56
Jacoby FGH 688 fr. 1
Apostles 8:27.
57
Hdt. 2.36; Diod. 3.3
58
G. Anderson, "Two Notes on Heliodorus," JHS 99 (1979) 149.
59
Plut. Mor. 906E
Plin. N.H. 7.52
Elias ad Aristot. Categ. 9A28 (p. 231 Busse)
Dion. Hal. De Vet. Script. cens. 1 (p. 416 Reiske)
Soran. Gynaik. 1.39
Galen De the- riaca 11 (14.253f Kuhn)
Jerome Hebr. quaest. in Genes. 30.32.33
CCL 72.37f.
Test. XII patr. Reub. 5.6f.
Rohde (supra n. 21) 476/447-477/448.
Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (Washington 1936)
60
Strabo 17.2.2
Diod. 1.33.
61
Vitruv. 8.2.6
Mela 1.50
Plin. N.H. 5.53
Solin. 32.7.
62
Strabo 17..2.2
63
Plin. N.H. 6.185
64
Aristot. De plant. 820A1.
65
Strabo 17.2.2
Plin. N.H. 13.43f.
Theophr. Hist. plant. 2.6.10
66
Hdt. 4.183.
Mela 1.44
Plin N.H. 5.43
Strabo 17.1.2, 17.1.53
Diod. 3.31ff.
Hanno Peripl. 7
Agatharch. De Mar. Erythr. 61-76 (Müller)
Ael. Nat. anim. 9.44, 17.45
Plin. N.H. 6.164-73.
Strabo 2.1.13, 2.2.2, 2.5.34-5
Ptol. Geogr. 4.7.10.
67
Hdt. 3.102ff.
68
Arr. Indika 15.4
Strabo 15.1.44
Dio Chrys. Or. 35.23
Plin. N.H. 11.111
Mela 3.62
Ael. Nat. anim. 3.4.
69
Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 6.1.
70
J. D. P. Bolton, Aristeas of Proconnesus (Oxford 1962) 64ff.
71
Agatharch. De Mar. Erythr. 1.19
Theophr. Hist. plant. 9.15.2
72
Luc. De Salt. 18
Claud. De tert. Cons. hon. 18ff.
idem Nil. 20ff.
H. P. l'Orange, "Maurische Auxilien im Fries des Konstantinsbogens," SymbOslo 13 (1934) 105-113.
73
R. L. Kowarna, Das Weltbild Heliodors in den äthiopischen Geschichten (Diss., Vienna 1959) 129ff.
74
Hdt. 3.111
Theophr. Hist. plant. 9.4.2, 9.7.2.
75
Plin. N.H. 12.82
J. I. Miller, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1969) 154.
76
A. Dihle, "The Conception of India in Hellenistic and Roman Literature," PCPS N.S. 10 (1964) 15-23.
77
Theocr. 7.113f.
Strabo 17.1.2
Mela 1.23, 1.48
Avien. Orb. Desc. 329ff.
Plin. N.H. 5.46
Solin. 31.5
Mart. Cap. 6.674
Isid. Etym. 11.3.17.
C. Lacombrade, "Sur l'auteur et la date des Ethiopiques, " REG 83 (1970) 70-89, esp. 82-83.
78
Plut. Crass. 25
Amm. Marc. 16.12.22
Caes. Bell. Gall. 4.12
Xen. Kyr. 7.1.37.
C. L. Woolley and D. Randall-MacIver, Karanòg—The Romano-Nubian Cemetery (Philadelphia 1910) vol. 3, p. 90
79
Paus. 6.26.6ff.
A. Dihle, Umstrittene Daten (Cologne and Upladen 1965) 74 n. 79
Lucan 10.293
S. Berzina, "Meroe et la Chine, I-VIIIième siècle de l'ère chré- tienne," Meroe—Istoriya, Istoriya Kultury, Yazyk Dreviego Sudana," ed. I. Katsnelson (Moscow 1977) 214-40
W. Vycichl, "Heliodors Aithiopika und die Volksstämme des Reiches Meroe," Ägypten und Kusch (= Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des alten Orients 13), ed. E. Endesfelder et al. (Berlin 1977) 447-58, esp. 451-54.
80
F. Altheim and R. Stiehl, Die Araber in der alten Welt, Vol. 5.1 (Berlin 1969) 18-24
E. Cerulli, "Punti di vista sulla storia dell'Ethiopia," Atti del convegno internazionale di studi etiopici (= Problemi attuali di scienza e cultura, Quaderno n. 48) (Rome 1960) 5-27, esp. 18ff.
81
Adams (supra n. 54) 383-90.
C. Conti Rossini, "Meroe ed Aksum nel romanzo di Eliodoro," RSEO 8 (1919) 233ff.
82
Aristotle (De incess. anim. 712A-B)
83
W. Krebs, "Zur Rolle des Elefanten in der Antike," Forschungen und Fortschritte 41 (1967) 85-87.
84
Zeuxis 9ff.
85
Ael. Nat. anim. 13.9
Strabo 15.1.52
Plin. N.H. 8.22
Liv. 37.40
Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 2.12
I Maccabees 6:37
86
Hdt. 7.41, 9.20, 9.22
Paus. 1.27.1
Quint. Curt. 3.13.3ff.
Aristeid. Panathenaikos 122
Loeb and Lenz-Behr Or. 1
Dindorf 13.129
87
Kyr. 6.4.1, 7.1.2
88
R. M. Rattenbury, "An Ancient Armoured Force," CR 56 (1942) 113-16.
89
Veget. De re mil. 3.23
Plut. Lucull. 28
Crass. 25
Liv. 37.43.4
Tac. Hist. 1.79
Amm. Marc. 16.12.22
Quint. Curt. 3.11.15.
90
Char. 6.4.2
Iambl. Babyloniaka fr. 1 (Habrich)
Aristot. Hist. anim. 632A31
Dio Chrys. Or. 3.130, 36.41
Luc. Quomodo hist. conscr. sit 39
Themist. Or. 19.226A, 22.266A.
91
Xen. Kyr. 7.1.33.
92
Ibid. 7.1.41ff.
E. Feuillâtre, Etudes sur les Ethiopiques d'Héliodore (Paris 1966) 139.
93
Hdt. 8.98
Xen. Kyr. 8.6.18.
94
Diod. 1.39.7ff., esp. 1.39.10.
95
P. Milan 28.3.79 (from A.D. 163).
BGU 362.15.11 (A.D. 215)
CIG 12.2.511.
Chron. p. 92.33-34 (ed. de Boor = p. 143 Bonn).
96
Aristeid. Or. 36.125 (Keil)
Diod. 1.36
Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 6.1
Himer. Or. 14.1 (Colonna)
Aristainet. Byz. De Nili bonis ap. Eudoc. Violar. 698
Hopfner Fontes 345
D. Bonneau, La crue du Nil—Divinité égyptienne (Paris 1964) 361ff.
97
Diod. 1.36.10
Max. Tyr. 25.7f. (110A)
Plin. N.H. 5.58
Ov. Trist. 1.2.80
Plut. De Iside 29
Liban. Or. 30.35
Aristain. Byz. (supra n. 97)
Euseb. Vit. Const. 4.25.
98
Diod. 1.36.2, 1.39.4
Lucan 10.298f
Plin. N.H. 5.59
Plut. Sulla 20.
99
Aristeid. Or. 36.23 (Keil)
S. Theocr. 7.114C
Oros. 1.2.28
Sozomen. Hist. eccl. 7.20
Call. fr. 384.27 (Pfeiffer)
Liban. Epist. 1274.2
Anth. Pal. 9.384
Ach. Tat. 4.12.2
Hdt. 2.13
Eur. Helen. 1-3
Aristoph. Thesm. 855-56
Isocr. Bousiris 13
Tib. 1.7.21-26
Mela 1.49
Sen. Quaest. nat. 4A.2.2
Mart. 1.61
Plin. Paneg. Traian. 30
Claud. Nil. 2
Theophr. Caus. plant. 3.3.3
Aes. fr. 300 (Nauck)
Procl. Comm. ad Plat. Tim. 37C
Procop. Epist. 136.
S. Sauneron, "Un thème littéraire de l'anti- quite classique: le Nil et la pluie," BIFAO 51 (1952) 41-48.
100
Hdt. 2.5
Arr. Anab. 5.6.5
Aristot. Meteor. 352B20ff.
Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 6.23
Diod. 3.3.2.
101
Tim. 22D.
102
Diod. 3.3.3.
Σ. Theocr. 7.114C
Serv. ad Verg. Aen. 9.30
idem ad Verg. Georg. 4.291
Ioh. Lyd. De mens. 4.107.1
Isid. Etym. 13.21.7
Eustath. ad Dion. Perieg. 222
Suda s.v. [Unrepresented Characters]; Σ. Lycophr. p. 60.20 (ed. Scheer)
Choer. Orth. ap. Cramer Anec. Oxon. 2.240.27
Etym. Magn. 602.9
103
Philon Vit. Mos. 2.195.
ArchP 4 (1907-8) 66.
104
Orig. C. Cels. 5.38
Porphyr. De imaginibus ap. Euseb. Praep. evang. 3.11.51ff.
Plut. De Iside 32-33
Varr. De ling. lat. 5.10
Herodian Gramm. De orthogr. p. 526-27
Hopfner Fontes 301
Firm. Mat. De Err. prof. relig. 2.6
Sallust. De Diis et mund. 4
Macrob. Sat. 1.20
Isid. Etym. 8.11.84ff.
Etym. Magn. s.v. '[Unrepresented Characters]; Hippolyt. Ref. omn. haeres. 5.22f.
Ps.-Clem. Recogn. 10.27.
106
De lapid. 34.
107
Plin. N.H. 37.69
Strabo 17.1.45
108
Epiphanius De XII Gemmis 20-21
CSEL 35.2.749
Olympiod. 37
Dindorf HGM 1.466
109
Supra p. 000.
110
Strabo 17.1.48
Eustath. ad Dion. Perieg. 222
Strabo 17.1.48
Aristeid. Or. 36.59
Plin. N.H. 2.183.
Diod. 2.35.2
Arr. Ind. 25.7
Plin N.H. 2.184.
111
Plin. N.H. 8.182
Suet. Claud. 21.3
Dio Cass. 61.9.1
Anth. Pal. 9.543
CIG 3212
R. M. Rattenbury, "How to Toss a Bull," PCPS 178 (1941-45) 14.
112
Sokr. Hist. eccl. 5.22
113
Hdt. 2.91
Strabo 17.1.41
Plut. De Isid. 14
Diod. 1.18
Plin. N.H. 5.60
Steph. Byz. s.v. [Unrepresented Characters].
Hdt. 2.156
Hekataios FGH 1 F305
Mela 1.55.
Hdt. 2.165.
114
Phot. Bibl. cod. 279.529B25, 535B39
115
Hdt. 2.81
Hdt. 2.164
Ael. Nat. anim. 10.31
116
Ptol. 3.14.4-5
Thuc. 1.46
Dionys. 26.181, 32.186.
117
Thuc. 8.108.
118
Theophr. Hist. plant. 2.6.7
Plin. N.H. 13.41
Plut. Alex. 67
Arr. Ind. 18.8
App. Mithr. 10
Jos. Ant. Jud. 17.44
Ov. Amor. 2.2.1.
119
Quint. Curt. 8.2.19
Plut. Alex. 58.
Hdt. 7.64
Ganschinietz RE s.v. Hystaspes
120
Plut. Alex. 33.5
Arr. Anab. 3.14-15.
supra n. 92, 136ff.
121
Xen. Hell. 4.1.32ff.
Plut. Ages. 12.
122
Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 1.31.
123
supra n. 14.
124
CR 52 (1938) 145.
125
C. Onasch, "Kusch in der Sicht von Ägyptern und Griechen," Agypten und Kusch (supra n.79) 331-36.
L. Kákosy, "Nu- bien als mythisches Land im Altertum," Annales Universitatis Scientiarum Budapestinensis—Sectio Historica 8 (1966) 3-10
126
F. Altheim and R. Stiehl (supra n. 80)
Z. A. Glava, A Study of Heliodoros and His Romance the Aethiopica, with a Critical Evaluation of His Work as a Serious Source of Information on Ancient Aethiopia (New York 1937)
R. L. Kowarna (supra n. 73)
S. Berzina, "Les Ethiopiques d'Héliodore, source de l'histoire de Méroé," Meroe (supra n. 79) 146-90, 295.
Dihle, Umstrittene Daten (supra n. 79) 74 n. 79
Vycichl (supra n. 79).
127
Bion of Soloi FGH668 F1
Plin. N.H. 6.186
Act. Apost. 8:27
Strabo 17.1.54
Dio Cass. 54.5.4
Alexander Romance 3.18.3.
J. Desanges, "Vues grecques sur quelques aspects de la monarchie méroïtique," BIFAO 66 (1968) 89-104.
128
Sokr. Hist. eccl. 5.22
Nikephoros Kallistos Hist. eccl. 12.34
PG 146.860
129
S. A. Naber, "Observationes criticae in Heliodorum," Mnemosyne N.S. 1 (1873) 147.
130
Heliod. 8.1.2.
131
Glava (supra n. 126) 9.
132
Kowarna (supra n. 73) 105.
133
Herodotos (2.29, 2.31)
Or. 36.55 Keil
Hydaspes (10.4.4).
Syene (9.25.1ff.)
victory reaches Meroe (10.3.1).
134
Heliod. 2.31.3, 2.32.1.
135
Heliod. 2.21.2
136
Hdt. 2.36
Plut. De Isid. 3
Apul. Met. 11.10
H. Bonnet, Reallexicon der agyptischen Religionsgeschichte (Berlin 1952) s.v. Kopfrasur (p. 389)
J. Gwyn Griffiths, Apu- leius of Madauros: The Isis-Book (Leiden 1975) 192-93.
Kalasiris' asceticism: 3.11.2
Gwyn Grif- fiths, Apuleius 290-91.
Porph. Vit. Plot. 2.1-5
G. N. Sandy's forthcoming paper "Characterisation and Philosophical Decor in Heliodorus' Aethiopica. "
137
Fehling (supra n. 24) 91.
138
W. Bühler, "Das Element des Visuellen in der Eingangsszene von Heliodors Aithiopika, " WS N.F. 10 (1976) 177-85.
139
Xen. Hell. 3.1.7
J. Maillon ad loc.
140
R. Keydell, "Zur Datierung der Aithiopika Heliodors," Poly- chronion—Festschrift für Franz Dölger, ed. P. Wirth (Heidelberg 1966) 345-50.
141
Liebenam in RE s.v. "Festungskrieg," col. 2252.
142
E. Fehrle, Die kultische Keuschheit im Altertum (Giessen 1910) 112ff.
143
A. Scobie, Aspects of the Ancient Romance and Its Heritage (= Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie, Heft 30) (Meisenheim am Glan 1969) 47ff.
144
Heliod. 4.9.1.
145
Feuillatre (supra n. 92) 43-44.
146
Heliod. 4.8.6.
147
V. Hefti, Zur Erzählungstechnik in Heliodors Aethio- pica (diss., Basel and Vienna 1950) 74-78
B. P. Reardon, "The Greek Novel," Phoenix 23 (1969) 302 n. 30.
Winkler (supra n. 23)
148
Keydell (cf. n. 140)
149
Naber (supra n. 129) 149
153
Winkler (supra n. 23) (p. 15 of MSS).
155
Winkler (supra n. 23) (p. 50 of MSS).
158
K. Kerényi, Die griechisch-orientalische Romanliteratur in religionsgeschichtlicher Beleuch- tung (Tübingen 1927)
R. Merkelbach, Roman und Mysterium in der Antike (Munich and Berlin 1962).
Jul. Epist. 89.301B Bidez
Auct. Ad Herenn. 1.12-13
Macrob. Comm. in Somn. Scip. 1.2.6-12
Bibl. 109A10ff.
159
Bowie (supra n. 34).
160
Perry (supra n. 3) 120ff.
161
D. B. Durham, "Parody in Achilles Tatius," CP 33 (1938) 1-19
162
F. Wehrli, "Einheit und Vorgeschichte der griechisch-römischen Romanliteratur," MusHelv 22 (1965) 133-54.
B. P. Reardon, "Aspects of the Greek Novel," Greece and Rome N.S. 23 (1976) 118-31.
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