This essay attempts to develop some ideas about national identity as envisioned in the "Aeneid", with two foci: the lack of clarity concerning Aeneas' own nationality, and the inaccuracies in the descriptions of the foreigners portrayed on Aeneas' Vulcanian shield. I aim to undermine the notion that Vergil's own generation and Augustus' regime should be assumed to be the "climax," "culmination," or "fulfillment" of the historical process as the "Aeneid" imagines it, and to present reasons for thinking that Vergil's audience was being invited, instead, to imagine a very long-range future-to expand for themselves the scope of the poem and meet its challenge. I discuss the possibility that Vergil himself was not born either Roman or technically Italian and mention also the probable high proportion of his original audience born without the Roman franchise and admitted to it in the 80s or in 49. I argue that the extended historical range-finder through which the poem requires its readers to view themselves and their inheritors is designed to impose upon them the task of seeking a version of mos (civilized traditional customs) that can be made universal, and the task also of regarding present opponents as destined future fellow-Romans.


Anderson 1983
Bonjour 1975
Miles 1995.
Harrison 1990:1-120
Johnson 1976
Bonjour 1975
Zetzel 1989.
Eclogue 9.46-49.
Eclogue 9.47.
Scott 1941:257-72, esp. 258-59.
Carcopino 1930:30-37.
Alföldi 1930:369.
Chilver 1941:7-15.
Brunt 1971:168.
Little 1982:258
Brunt 1971:204-65
Badian 1968 ch. 5.
Gabba's summary (1976:123)
Klingner 1979:23-25
Brunt 1988:135-36
Gabba 1976:99
Brunt 1971, especially chs. 6-9.
Brunt and Moore 1967:51.
Nicolet 1980:23.
Whatmough 1971 passim.
Dyson 1992:59
Pallottino 1991:139
Klingner 1979:21.
Brunt 1988:117
n. 80
Gabba 1976:77 (Rhomaioi) and 101.
Badian 1970-1971:402
Gabba 1976:70-96.
Beard and Crawford 1985:81.
Syme 1939:88.
Dyson 1992:65.
C. Gracchus frr. 48-49 in Malcovati 1953:191-92
Aulus Gellius NA 10.3
D'Arms 1984:440-67, esp. 440-41.
Velleius Paterculus 2.15.
Brunt 1988:126
Syme 1939:286.
Pro L. Murena 75
Beard and Crawford 1985:79-80
Lowenthal 1985:213.
Lowenthal 1994:47.
Miles 1995:55.
Connor 1990
Syme 1939
Momigliano 1940.
Gabba 1976:96-97
Wilson 1966:94.
Brunt 1971:206-209
"A Matter of Identity," Sacks 1985:108-15.
Greene 1982:10.
Renan 1947:904.
Bhabha 1990
Nepotes also at 7.99
Bettini 1997 (this issue)
Greene 1986.
F. Cairns 1977.
Harrison 1977:130
Sherwin-White 1973:115-16.
Horsfall 1976:73-89, especially 82-85.
Toll 1991:4.
super et Garamantos et Indos 6.792
Gransden 1976:178 (in loc.)
Horace C. 1.35.32
Nisbet and Hubbard 1989:399
Gurval 1995:242
Life of Mark Antony 61
Gurval 1995:35
Gurval 1995:239-42.
Paduska 1970:33-34 and 46.
Hexter 1990:109-31.
Gurval 1995:240
Gurval 1995:35-36.
Rudd 1986:27-42
Fowler 1990:51.
Momigliano 1940:79.
Earl 1967, esp. pp. 21-26.
De Officiis 1.15
Litchfield 1914:9
charts pp. 28-35.
Lind 1979:7-58.
Inst. 12.2.30
Williams 1983:238.
O'Hara 1990:84.
Gruen 1992, esp. pp. 29-31
McKay 1970:156
Galinsky 1969
Harrison 1984
Feeney 1984.
Thompson 1984.
Halle 1972
Cuthbertson 1975
Gillis 1994
Rudy J. Koshar says succinctly, "National identity is based on the decentering and suppression of other, 'non-national' identities" (229).
Lind 1979:12
Horsfall 1976:84.

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