San Francisco’s 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, celebrating the opening of the Panama Canal, symbolized California’s desire for preeminence in Pacific trade and naval power. The expected reopening of an enlarged Panama Canal in 2015 is causing shippers, ports, and military strategists to reassess how the Golden State should adapt to the ever-growing importance of the Pacific world in global affairs. Such ongoing and future adaptations to the enlarged Panama Canal will continue to underscore and augment California’s perennially close ties to the Pacific world.

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