Nowhere is China’s aid program both more important and yet less understood than with North Korea. This article examines two puzzles: China’s aid to North Korea coexists with a discriminatory trading relationship, and China continues to provide aid even as it tightens economic sanctions on North Korea’s nuclear program.
North Korea’s deepening economic interactions with China have encouraged the former’s localized trends toward a more market-oriented and externally engaged society. This article compares China’s engagement strategy to South Korea’s “Sunshine Policy” and then assesses China’s transformational influence on North Korean institutions, cross-border cooperation, businesspeople, and consumers.
In China over the past two decades, a group of ““history activists”” has maximized its professional independence, social credibility, academic resources, and international connections to usurp many traditional roles of the state in building new institutions and engaging in activism aimed at documenting and disseminating information on Japan's wartime atrocities.