A study of the last four national elections (2002, 2008, 2013, and 2018) in Pakistani Punjab indicates how affiliation with political parties develops and varies in the province. In urban areas, parties have a relatively stable presence and hardened loyalists. However, in less-developed and rural areas they rely on electables and politically influential families, which limits their choices in nominating candidates. In the latter areas, voters care more about candidates and kinship than about parties and their manifestos.
Party Affiliation and Voting Behavior: How Partisanship Works in Pakistani Punjab
Muhammad Shoaib is Assistant Professor in the Department of International Relations, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan. He is also affiliated with the Pakistan Study Center, North Minzu University, China.
Ahmad Sabat is Assistant Professor in the Department of Pakistan Studies at Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. He was previously a Research Fellow in the Department of Political Science at Columbia University, New York, USA.
Khuram Iqbal is affiliated with the Department of Security Studies and Criminology at Macquarie University, Australia. He previously worked at the National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Muhammad Shoaib, Ahmad Sabat, Khuram Iqbal; Party Affiliation and Voting Behavior: How Partisanship Works in Pakistani Punjab. Asian Survey 2023; doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2023.2034719
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