In 2023, revolutionary forces made significant gains in an escalating war against an increasingly embattled military dictatorship. Since General Min Aung Hlaing ousted the democratically elected government in a military coup on February 1, 2021, his junta has failed to subdue the countrywide Spring Revolution resisting the military takeover. This is despite the generals’ terror campaign of atrocious violence against the population. In 2021, many outside observers gave the Spring Revolution and the thousands of young people who have taken up arms against the military regime little fighting chance. But these forces have rapidly evolved, and powerful ethnic resistance armies have joined the war against the junta. This article explains how revolutionary war has scaled up, despite a lack of international support and the diversity of revolutionary forces. It also evaluates wider implications for the society, economy, and international relations of a country on the brink of collapse.

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