In 2023, North Korea continued along a trajectory similar to that of 2022, with developments in politics, the economy, military, and diplomacy. The regime’s primary focus was on the glorification of Kim Jong-Un and the enhancement of its nuclear capabilities to ensure regime stability. This involved efforts to maintain internal solidarity through economic mobilization while tightly controlling any social dissatisfaction. North Korea adamantly refused to discuss denuclearization with the United States and designated South Korea as a belligerent state. Meanwhile, the country pursued closer cooperation with Russia and strengthened its long-standing ties with China. Although the full realization and substantial impact of North Korea’s achievements may be limited at this point, there appears to be progress in line with its strategic plan.

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