A study of the last four national elections (2002, 2008, 2013, and 2018) in Pakistani Punjab indicates how affiliation with political parties develops and varies in the province. In urban areas, parties have a relatively stable presence and hardened loyalists. However, in less-developed and rural areas they rely on electables and politically influential families, which limits their choices in nominating candidates. In the latter areas, voters care more about candidates and kinship than about parties and their manifestos.

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