The salience of the immigration issue has increased in Japan due to the pressures of labor shortages and an aging population. However, little research has examined what predicts anti-immigrant sentiment and how it relates to the voting behavior of Japanese people. Using nationally representative survey data, this article digs deeper into public opinion on immigration by testing a variety of economic, social, and demographic variables associated with different dimensions of anti-immigrant sentiment. I find that whereas economic concerns are based on realistic assessments of job threats posed by immigration, cultural and security concerns are driven primarily by stereotypes of immigrants. Using this evidence, I examine the relationship between immigration attitudes and voting choice. Economic and security concerns about immigration are correlated with actual voting choices, but I see no evidence that cultural threats have a meaningful effect on Japanese voting decisions.

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