An assessment of Modi’s economic policies (“Modinomics”) shows that the gap between intentions and outcomes remains wide because Modinomics has been too cautious and contradictory to overcome the unusual structural challenges facing India’s economy. Moreover, the contradictions of Modinomics, which privileges trade protectionism and selective financial-sector liberalization, limits the potential gains from deeper global economic integration. This article argues that deepening economic reforms, including integration into the global economy, can help mitigate the structural impediments facing the Indian economy.

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