Agriculture has been seen as the engine of growth for Afghanistan, but it has failed to deliver. Evidence from a long-term livelihood study points to a rural economy that is driven more by social relations than by market relations. These are underpinned by major land inequality and a distributional economy concerned with survival, given the absence of rural employment.
Challenges of Late Development in Afghanistan: The Transformation That Did Not Happen
Adam Pain is a Visiting Professor in the Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. He is grateful to his colleagues Ashley Jackson and Giulia Minoia for comments on an earlier draft and for those of the reviewer. Email: <email@example.com>.
Danielle Huot is an independent researcher and led the fieldwork for third-round livelihood restudy in Afghanistan. She is currently living in Ecuador. This work was financed by the European Commission as part of the Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium’s global research program on livelihoods in conflict-affected situations. There are no conflicts of interest. Email: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
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Adam Pain, Danielle Huot; Challenges of Late Development in Afghanistan: The Transformation That Did Not Happen. Asian Survey 1 December 2018; 58 (6): 1111–1135. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2018.58.6.1111
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