My collaborations with psychologists began with Hanna Levenson at Texas A&M. Her comments when we finished a walk through the old, cavernous, 125-student general chemistry laboratory forever changed the way I view student interactions in school labs [1]. Carol Tomlinson-Keasey (most recently Chancellor at the University of California, Merced) [2] introduced me to cognitive science, and, together with Robert Fuller at Nebraska, to the ideas of Piaget [3].

It is not surprising, then, that my most recent collaboration with Duane Shell led to development of the unified learning model (ULM) [4]. Ours was not really any kind of a discovery as much as a synthesis from the existing literatures of several fields (psychology, educational psychology, and neuroscience). When fields develop separately, unique vocabularies emerge to describe similar or even identical phenomena. It's similar to using chemical periodic tables printed in different languages [5].

Here are the sound bites we use...

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