At the Council of Clermont in November 1095 Pope Urban II called the west to war. His speech was acerbic and vitriolic, religiously charged and filled with the alleged horrors suffered by Christians living in the east. It evoked in his audience a zeal and spirit that would be seen by later generations as the crusading ideal. However, it also exposed inherent political fragility, and deep seated racial biases, amongst elements of his audience, and upon those who took up the cross in the name of Christ. From April to July in 1096 the Ashkenazic Jews of Speyer, Worms and Mainz were targeted by elements of these Christian forces, facing either...
Review: From Anti-Judaism to Anti-Semitism, Ancient and Medieval Christian Constructions of Jewish History, by Robert Chazan
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Anthony Smart; Review: From Anti-Judaism to Anti-Semitism, Ancient and Medieval Christian Constructions of Jewish History, by Robert Chazan. Studies in Late Antiquity 1 March 2019; 3 (1): 116–119. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/sla.2019.3.1.116
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